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Louisiana History Journal



H

HAAS, A. M., planter. Born, Alsace, France, August 18, 1833. Immigrated to Louisiana, ca. 1845. Married Mary Macarinah ("Maccie") Marshall (1848-1876). A colonel in the Confederate Army; member of the honor guard at funeral of Jefferson Davis (q.v.). Owned the plantation on which the town of Bunkie is located and asked permission of Texas and Pacific Railroad to name the town in exchange for the right of way. Named it "Bunkie," nickname of his daughter, Mary Maccie. Children: W. D. Haas, Nannie Haas, Mary Maccie Haas, A. Marshall Haas, and Alice Haas. Died, February 24, 1908; interred Marshall Family Cemetery, Evergreen, La. S.E. Sources: Interview with Mrs. Helen Haas Ducote; Sue Eakin with La Commission des Avoyelles, Crossroads of Louisiana (1981).

HAAS, Samuel
, merchant. Born, Alsace, France, June 29, 1836; son of Samuel and Harriet Haas. Emigrated to United States about 1852. Operated a store at Bayou Chicot, La. Married Martha A. Cole, daughter of John Cole and Lavinia Hudson, March 15, 1862. Five children. First lieutenant and captain, Prairie Rangers, Company K, Third Louisiana Cavalry, during Civil War. Returned to mercantile business and began acquiring land. Business thrived and owned hundreds of acres in four parishes. Member police jury, St. Landry Parish, 1892-1907. Removed to Bunkie, 1907. Died, Opelousas, January 9, 1919; interred Bayou Chicot. A.W.B. Sources: Clement A. Evans, Confederate Military History, 13 vols. (1899), vol. X; St. Landry Clarion, January 11, 1919; Opelousas Star-Progress, January 11, 1919.

HACHARD, Marie-Madeleine (Sister St. Stanislaus)
, religious, letter writer. Born, Rouen, France, 1704. In a series of five letters to her father, she chronicled the journey to New Orleans of the first Ursuline nuns. Began her novitiate at Hennebon, France, January 1, 1727. Left for Louisiana on the ship La Gironde, February 22, 1727, in the company of nine nuns, two postulants, two servants, and three priests. Arrived in Louisiana on July 23, 1727. In her letters, she describes the adventures of the five-month voyage as well as the strangeness of the scenery and habits of the natives of her new land. The letters to her father, procurator in charge of accounts at Rouen, cover a period from February 22, 1727, to April 24, 1728, and were printed in Rouen in 1728. Other editions appeared in 1865, 1872, and a translation in 1974. Sister Stanislaus taught at the Ursuline Convent and acted as secretary for the community. Died, New Orleans, August 9, 1760. P.D.A. Sources: Diane M. Moore, Their Adventurous Will: Profiles of Memorable Louisiana Women (1984); Myldred M. Costa, trans., The Letters of Marie Madeleine Hachard (1974).

HAHN, Georg Michael Decker
, attorney, journalist, governor, planter, congressman. Born, Klingenmunster, in the German Palatinate, November 24, 1830. As a small child, he accompanied widowed mother, Magaretha Decker Hahn, and four siblings to New York, and soon afterward to New Orleans, ca. 1840. Mother died of yellow fever in following year. Education: local schools, law department of University of Louisiana (Tulane University), L.L.B., 1851; worked in the law office of Christian Roselius (q.v.) and also as a real estate agent and newspaper writer. After graduation, Hahn practiced law and also served as a notary public. A pre-war Democrat opposed to the state's John Slidell faction, he was against presidential nomination of Buchanan in 1856, and favored Douglas in 1860. A strong anti-secessionist, he became a Republican in 1862 when the city was occupied by Union military forces. Purchased and edited New Orleans True Delta, advocating emancipation and broad support of Lincoln's policies; served as congressman from Louisiana's Second District in 1863, and elected state's governor by the Free-State party in 1864. Resigning from governorship in 1865, he was elected U. S. senator, opposing President Andrew Johnson's "lenient" Reconstruction measures in his second newspaper venture, the New Orleans Republican (1867). Crippled by severe gunshot wound suffered in New Orleans Riot of 1866. Retired to plantation in St. Charles Parish, where he founded the town of Hahnville in 1872; published third newspaper, the St. Charles Herald, in same year. After serving again as a state legislator, and also as speaker of the house, was once more elected as congressman from state's Second District by miraculous majority of 3,000 votes. Although criticized for strong Unionist sympathies expressed before, during, and after the Civil War, Hahn's Southern opponents respected him for his personal courage, consistent philosophy, and scholarly approach. Died, Washington, D. C., March 15, 1886, while serving as Louisiana's sole Republican member of Congress. A.E.S. & T.F.R. Sources: "Michael Hahn," Appleton's Cyclopedia (1900); "Georg Michael Decker Hahn," Dictionary of American Biography, (1932).

HALL, Dominick Augustine
, jurist. Born, South Carolina, 1765. Began law practice in Charleston, S. C. District judge of Orleans Territory, 1809-1812. When Louisiana was admitted to the Union (1812), was one of the state's federal judges; resigned his seat on the bench to accept a judgeship of the state supreme court, but was reappointed federal judge instead and remained in the U. S. court until his death. In December 1814, was ordered by the military authorities to adjourn his court for two months, owing to the operations of the British against New Orleans. In March 1815 while the city was under martial law, granted a writ of habeas corpus to Louis Louillier, a member of the state legislature, who was then under arrest by order of Gen. Andrew Jackson (q.v.) for inciting a seditious meeting among his troops. Gen. Jackson refused to recognize Judge Hall's authority and at once ordered Louillier's rearrest and imprisonment and committed Hall to jail. Hall was released the next morning and summoned the general to answer for contempt of court in disregarding the writ of habeas corpus, in detaining an original paper, and in imprisoning a judge. The general appeared in person and after argument by counsel was sentenced to pay a fine of $41,000; Congress refunded this sum with interest in 1844. Died, New Orleans, December 19, 1820. J.B.C. Sources: Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography (1900); The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography (1906).

HALL, Edmond, jazz clarinetist. Born, New Orleans, May 15, 1901, into a family of musicians. Father, Edward, played with the Onward Brass Band, and three brothers, Herbert, Robert, and Clarence, became professional musicians. Played first guitar, then clarinet, with New Orleans bands, including the Buddy Petit Band, 1921-1923, and Alonzo Ross and his Deluxe Syncopators, 1926-1928. Removed North in 1928 and played clarinet and baritone sax with big swing bands: Claude Hopkins's Band, 1930-1935, Lucius (Lucky) Millinder, 1936-1937, Henry (Red) Allen, 1940-1941, and Theodore (Teddy) Wilson. In 1939, began working with small groups, including "Teddy" Wilson's Sextet, 1941-1944; then led his own sextet. In 1944 began performing at Cafe Society in New York and recording with Eddie Condon. From 1955 to 1958, performed with Louis Armstrong's All Stars. Went to Ghana in 1959, but returned after a few months. Recorded extensively from the 1930s on. Appeared in films including High Society (1956) and Satchmo the Great (1960); toured Europe and Japan; appeared in major jazz festivals. Died, Boston, February 11, 1967. M.A. Sources: H. Wiley Hitchcock and Stanley Sadie, eds., The New Grove Dictionary of American Music (1986); Eileen Southern, Biographical Dictionary of Afro-American and African Musicians (1982); B. McRae, "Edmond Hall," Jazz Journal, XXIII (1970).

HALL, Frederick Douglass
, composer, educator. Born, Atlanta, Ga., December 14, 1898. Studied at Morehouse College, Atlanta, where he was a student of Kemper Harreld, B.A., 1921; Chicago Musical College, B.M., 1924, and Columbia University Teachers' College, M.A., 1929, D.Ed. Mus., 1952. Studied in London, 1933-1935, at the Royal Academy of Music where he earned a licenciate degree and at London University. Toured England, Scotland and Wales studying folk music. Taught at Jackson College, Jackson, Miss., 1921-1927; at Dillard University in New Orleans, 1936-1941, and 1960-1974; at Alabama State College, Montgomery, 1941-1955, and Southern University in Baton Rouge, 1955-1959. Spent six months in West Africa, studying folk music. Prolific composer, produced six volumes of choral arrangements of spirituals, 1929-1953; an oratorio Deliverance (1938); a cycle Afro-American Religious Work Songs (1952); and the school songs for both Jackson College and Dillard University. Toured the United States as lecturer, consultant and guest choral conductor. Many civic, professional and government awards including a testimonial read into the Congressional Record by Augustus Hawkins, April 30, 1964. Died, Atlanta, December 28, 1982. M.A. Sources: Charles Panzen, Louisiana Composers (1972); Eileen Southern, Biographical Dictionary of Afro-American and African Musicians (1982); H. Wiley Hitchcock and Stanley Sadie, eds., The New Grove Dictionary of American Music (1986).

HALL, James H. "Jim"
, sports writer, civic leader. Born, Sheffield, Ala. Education: Wendell Phillips Senior High School of Chicago, Ill.; Xavier University, A. B., 1938, on basketball scholarship under the coaching and supervision of Giles Wright. Sports editor for the Louisiana Weekly newspaper from 1946 until his death and a member of the New Orleans Saints public relations staff. Married Marion Duplessis, September 21, 1942. Children: Janet Hall of Oakland, Calif.; Mrs. Karen H. Castle of New Orleans. A World War II veteran who saw service twice; discharged with the rank of warrant officer. Member: Press Club of New Orleans; the Mid-Winter Sports Advisory Committee; the Mayor's Sports Advisory Committee; Louisiana Sportswriters Association; Crescent City Officials Association; Sports Awards Incorporated; V. F. W. Post 351; Greater New Orleans Sports Hall of Fame; Louisiana Education Association; Dryades Street Y. M. C. A.; National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; Urban League; the Superdome Task Force; Zulu Social and Pleasure Club, honorary member; the Old Timers' Sports Club; charter member of the Jug Buddies Club. St. Gabriel the Archangel Catholic Church. Awards: Silver Jubilee Alumnus Award, 1967, from Xavier University; Presidents Council on Youth Opportunity Award, 1968; cited by Mayors Victor Schiro and Moon Landrieu of New Orleans for "Outstanding Services Rendered to Youth of New Orleans." Died, New Orleans, July 4, 1974. C.T. Source: Authors research.

HALL, Luther Egbert, attorney, jurist, governor. Born, Bastrop, La., August 30, 1869; son of Bolling Cass Hall, planter, and Antoinette Newton. Education: local public schools; graduated from Washington and Lee, graduated, 1889; Tulane, LL. B., 1892. Practiced law briefly in Alexandria and in Bastrop. Served in the Louisiana state senate, 1898-1900; judge, Sixth Judicial District, 1900-1906; court of appeals, Northern District, 1906-1911, when he was elected to the state supreme court. Resigned from the supreme court to run for governor. Having won the supreme court seat following a heated campaign, Hall was persuaded to seek the governorship by John M. Parker (q.v.) of the New Orleans Good Government League, an organization opposed to the administration of New Orleans Mayor Martin Behrman (q.v.) and the city-based Democratic party Choctaw Club, an allegedly powerful and corrupt machine which had emerged as the leading issue in state politics. Hall's candidacy was solicited when a caucus of party leaders met in Monroe to support the gubernatorial aspirations of John T. Michel, one of the city ward leaders. Hall defeated Michel and James B. Aswell (q.v.) in the Democratic primary, tantamount to election. Hall's administration to an extent reflected progressive or reform forces of the period, and their frustration in opposition to the conservative, planter-city machine alliance. He failed to achieve civil service, anti-lobby, and electoral reforms, such as the non-partisan, short ballot sponsored by the New Orleans reformers. The state did enact a recall law. Hall admitted that he could not control the general assembly without compromising with Mayor Behrman and his allies. Political figures associated with both the reform and machine factions prevailed against the principal efforts of Hall to raise property taxes to improve state services and to reform broadly or re-write the state constitution. The Louisiana sugar planters demanded state restraints against the reputedly monopolistic power of the American Sugar Refining Company, an issue over which the governor had little control. With Hall's support, Louisiana was the first Southern state to enact a workman's compensation law, 1914. Another vintage progressive measure was the provision for a commission form of government for New Orleans, favored by the reformers: Behrman, however, easily won re-election in 1912, along with all five commission candidates supported by the Choctaw machine. Parker had become disillusioned with Hall's leadership, but he and most observers seemed to agree that he was better suited for the judicial than the executive branch of government. Hall practiced law in New Orleans, 1916-1918; served as assistant attorney general for Louisiana, 1918; was twice defeated, in 1918 and 1920, for the U. S. Senate and for the state supreme court, respectively. Death occurred at the time he was seeking to have the latter defeat reversed through a legal technicality involving his opponent's qualifications. Hall married Clara Wendell of Brownsville, Tenn., November 23, 1892. Children: Luther E. and Clara. In New Orleans he was a member of several civic and social clubs including the Masonic fraternity. Died, November 6, 1921; interred Bastrop Cemetery. M.J.S. Sources: Walter J. Burke, "Luther E. Hall," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, VI (1923); Matthew J. Schott, "John M. Parker and the Varieties of American Progressivism" (Ph. D. dissertation, Vanderbilt University, 1969); obituary, New Orleans Times-Picayune, November 7, 1921.

HALL, William Covington "Covami"
, Radical journalist and organizer, proponent of "Industrial Democracy." Born, Woodville, Miss., 1871; son of Rev. William Addison Hall, a Presbyterian minister, and Mary Elizabeth Pierce of Terrebonne Parish, La. After parents separated was raised on the plantation of a half-uncle in Terrebonne Parish. Lived in New Orleans after the mid-1890s selling insurance. A leading member of the radical faction of the Socialist Party in New Orleans. Joined the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) in 1905. Resigned from Socialist Party and temporarily joined the Socialist Labor Party. Active in labor struggles in New Orleans. Assistant editor of Oscar Amennger's Labor World during the 1907 Brewery Workers' strike. Played an important role in the affiliation of the Brotherhood of Timber Workers (BTW) with the IWW in 1912. Edited the BTW Lumberjack (Alexandria, La., January 9, 1913, to May 1, 1913; New Orleans, May to July, 1913), and its successor, The Voice of the People (New Orleans, July 17, 1913 to July, 1914). From July to September, 1913, Hall edited The Voice of the People in Portland, Ore. From January, 1915, through July, 1916, Hall published Rebellion (its first issue called Lodestar), a radical monthly in New Orleans. One of his more notable poems, "Us the Hoboes and Dreamers" (June, 1916). Wrote articles for the International Socialist Review, and later The One Big Union Monthly. In 1915 organized a short-lived successor to the BTW called first the Clan of Toil, then the Farm and Forest Workers' Union. During and after World War I worked as a publicity chief for the Non-Partisan League in North Dakota. Associated with the New Llano Colony in Vernon Parish. Taught briefly at Commonwealth College, Mena, Ark. and Work Peoples College, Duluth, Minn. Member, Sons of the Confederacy, adjutant general. Died, New Orleans, February 21, 1952. B.C.* Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, February 22, 1952; Hall, "Labor Struggles in the Deep South" (unpublished typescript, Tulane University); James Green, Grass-Roots Socialism (1978); Bernard Cook, "Covington Hall and Radical Rural Unionization in Louisiana," Louisiana History, (1977); Bernard Cook and James Watson, Louisiana Labor (1985); Thomas Becnel, "Agrarian Dichotomy," Louisiana History, XXIII (1982).

HALL, William Pike, attorney, jurist. Born, Statesville, N. C., January 21, 1851. Education: Tulane University, graduated 1875. Started law practice in Mansfield, La., then was elected district attorney for De Soto, Sabine, and Red River parishes. Seven years later he was elected district judge from the same district and served for 16 years. A member of the 1898 constitutional convention. Removed to Shreveport, 1900, and practiced law there. Married 3 times: (1) Ida Jack (d.1908) of Natchitoches, La. Three children: Lillian Hall Trichel, Pike Hall, Jr., and Mrs. Clifford Hall Sleeth. Married (2) Anita Perkins of Montgomery, Ala. One child: Myra S. Hall. Married (3) Elise Talley of Shreveport. Died, December 22, 1928. P.L.M. Source: J. Fair Hardin, Northwestern Louisiana (1939).

HALL, William Weeks
, artist, preservationist. Born, New Orleans, October 31, 1894; son of Gilbert Hall (d. 1909) and Lily Weeks; great-grandson of David Weeks (q.v.), who built the antebellum home Shadows-on-the-Teche. High school dropout, 10th grade, Old Boys School, New Orleans. Self-educated, life-long bachelor. Won scholarship in 1913 to attend Pennsylvania Academy of Arts at Philadelphia. While at the Academy, 1913-1915, was awarded scholarships to study abroad in France and England. He deferred this activity until after World War I (December 1920 through May 1922). World War I service record: joined U. S. Intelligence Service, camouflage unit, Gulf Coast activity. Enrolled July, 1918, as chief petty officer. Honorable discharge, December 20, 1918. As a result of these events, a close relationship developed between Hall and his widowed aunt, Mrs. Walter Torian (née Harriet Weeks), who lived in New Orleans. When the salt mine structures at Weeks Island were destroyed by fire, Hall and his aunt sold their interest in the mine and paid off a mortgage which hung over The Shadows. Hall then bought out his aunt's half-interest in The Shadows and became sole owner. In 1922, he secured services of prominent New Orleans architect Richard Koch (q.v.) in restoring the building. Hall supervised the restoration of the gardens. In 1923, D. W. Griffith filmed "The White Rose" at The Shadows. Portions of other movies made at The Shadows. Hall reached his zenith as an artist in 1928, as his New Orleans exhibit of canvases received favorable comments from critics. Crushed right-hand wrist in automobile accident in 1935. Handicapped as an artist, he took up photography and pioneered in colored transparencies. In later years he became more and more concerned about the welfare of The Shadows. In 1957, he appeared on Dave Garroway's nationally televised show, "Wide Wide World," where he made an appeal for some governmental agency to take over administration of The Shadows. Received notification on his deathbed that National Trust for Historic Preservation agreed to this responsibility. Died, June 27, 1958; interred grounds of The Shadows. M.R. Source: Morris Raphael, Weeks Hall, the Master of The Shadows (1981).

HAMILTON, Fuller M., educator. Born, Tenmile, rural Calcasieu Parish (presently Allen Parish), La., July 4, 1879; son of Rev. Isaac Hamilton and Lydia Eliza Simmons. Education: nearby rural schools; Georgetown (Tex.) High School; Louisiana State Normal (now Northwestern State University); University of Texas; Southwestern Louisiana Institute (now University of Southwestern Louisiana), B. A., 1922; Louisiana State University, M. A.; further study at Peabody College, Nashville, Tenn. Principal of Pickering School, Vernon Parish, 1904-1905; principal of Oakdale School, Calcasieu Parish, 1905-1909; assistant superintendent of schools, Calcasieu Parish, 1909-1913; superintendent schools, Calcasieu Parish, 1913-1917; director of Training School at SLI, 1917-1931; head of the Department of Elementary Education, 1931-1937; dean of College of Education, SLI, 1937-1940. President, Louisiana Teachers Association, 1916; editor of Department on Educational Trends for Louisiana School Review, contributor to Louisiana Teachers Journal, and consultant for Educational Policies Commission. Married Pearl Litton of Sabine Parish, daughter of Alfred Litton, Jr., and Sarah Oscar Tatum. Children: Versie Eloise (b. 1910), Herbert Alfred (b. 1913), Bonnie May (b. 1917), and Sarah Pearl (b. 1921). Member: Baptist church, board of trustees of Acadia Baptist Academy near Richard, La., Lafayette Rotary Club, Kappa Delta Pi, Louisiana Teachers Association National Education Association. Died, Lafayette, La., July 18, 1940; interred Lafayette Protestant Cemetery. S.H.M. Sources: Alcée Fortier, ed., Louisiana, vol. III (1914); family papers.

HAMILTON, Ruth Marie Mouton, civic leader. Born, Lafayette Parish, La., September 17, 1892; daughter of Judge Orther Charles Mouton and Elia Martin. Among her ancestors was Jean Mouton, who donated the land for the Cathedral of St. John the Evangelist and the courthouse in Lafayette. In 1915, she was first maid to the queen of the last major reunion of the United Daughters of the Confederacy in Richmond, Va. Married Charles D. Hamilton, 1920. Children: Ruth Elia (Mrs. Harry Turpie); Mary Virginia (Mrs. Madison Nelson); and Helen Carlyle (Mrs. Charles Bailey). Her civic activities are represented by her early interest in women's suffrage, numerous medical aid charities, and patriotic societies. She was a member of the Louisiana Milk Commission, and a member of the board of The Shadows-on-the-Teche and Sacred Heart Academy in Grand Coteau. An early leader in the movement to preserve the French language in Louisiana. She was a recipient of the French Palmes Académique and the Legion of Honor. In 1970, she was awarded the Pro Ecclesia et Poruifice medal by the pope for her service to her religion. Died, June 18, 1973; interred St. John Cathedral Cemetery, Lafayette, La. A.E.L. Sources: Lafayette Daily Advertiser, June 18, 1973; Mario Mamalakis, If They Could Talk! Acadiana's Buildings and Their Biographies (1984).

HAMILTON, William Sutherland
, planter, politician. Born, Edenton, N. C., April 3, 1789; son of John and Angel Hamilton. Educated at Princeton. Aide-de-camp to Gen. Wade Hampton (q.v.), 1812-1816, with rank of lieutenant colonel. Married Eliza Stewart, daughter of Duncan Stewart and Penelope Jones of Wilkinson County, Miss. Planter, West Feliciana Parish, La. Member first board of trustees, College of Louisiana, Jackson, 1825; served in Louisiana legislature, 1828-1830; unsuccessful gubernatorial candidate, 1830. Died prior to April 1867; interred Philadelphia, Pa. E.K.D. Sources: Hamilton Barrow Willis, St. Francisville, La.; House Journal; West Feliciana Parish Public Records.

HAMLIN, Walter B., jurist. Born, New Orleans, March 13, 1989; son of Charles H. and Henrietta M. Bergen Hamlin. Education: public schools; Soulé College, New Orleans; Loyola University, New Orleans, LL. B., 1919; honorary LL. D., 1969. Married Stella Malynn, April 3, 1923. No children. World War I veteran. Admitted to the bar, 1919; naval reserve, 1935-1942; assistant city attorney, New Orleans, 1943-1946; private practice until 1948; elected as judge of the Civil District Court, Orleans Parish, 1948; elected to Louisiana Supreme Court, 1958; reelected in 1966; became chief justice in 1972; retired in 1973. Prepared first draft of rules for the civil district of Orleans, effective June 1, 1954; prepared first draft of present rules of the state supreme court, effective April 1, 1962; discussion leader at seminars for supreme court justices held in New York, 1960, and Alabama, 1962 and 1963. Author of A History of the Courts in the Parish of Orleans (1950); The Courts of New Orleans, Their Past and Present Locations (1961); A Manual of Every Day Procedure in the Civil District Court (1952, 1958); "The History of the Supreme Court of Louisiana," published in Louisiana Reports; Techniques of and Style in Judicial Writings (1962); delivered over two hundred addresses on patriotic, literary, historical, and legal matters between 1957 and 1965; ten of these were broadcast on radio and television; was an amateur musician and enjoyed acting at New Orleans Little Theatre. Member, state supreme court judicial council, Loyola Alumni Association, Blue Key fraternity, Delta Theta Phi, national, state, and local bar associations, Military Order of the World Wars, American Legion, Young Men's Business Club, New Orleans Athletic Club, Woodmen of the World, Variety Club, Shakespeare Society of New Orleans, president of Grand Isle Tarpon Rodeo (1957); Catholic Lawyers Association. Died, January 1, 1984; interred Hope Mausoleum, New Orleans. J.B.C. Sources: Biographies of Louisiana Judges (1965); New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, January 3, 1984.

HAMMOND, Peter, early settler, businessman, father of Hammond, La. Born in Sweden, 1798; names of parents and schools unknown. Left homeland in early teens; became rigger, sailmaker, and sailor. Captured by British while on way to United States in War of 1812. Escaped from Dartmoor Prison and made way to New Orleans and then to Wadesboro or Springfield; settled near present-day Hammond and established a commissary and naval stores industry; built home in 1825. Married Caroline Tucker, native of Massachusetts and resident of Pontchatoula or Wadesboro, in 1830. Six children, one son, five daughters. When New Orleans, Jackson and Great Northern Railroad crossed Hammond's property the area became known as Hammond's Crossing, later this was changed to Hammond Station and still later to Hammond. During his lifetime, Hammond acquired slaves and property. After the Civil War he was in reduced circumstances. Died, 1870; interred Hammond, La. D.J.† Sources: John V. Coumes, "Individual Studies of Place-Names in Tangipahoa Parish, Louisiana," Tangipahoa Parish, Louisiana Centennial, Official Souvenir Program (1969); C. Howard Nichols, "From Tank Square to Alley Square-Hammond Reclaims Her Past," Hammond Daily Star, May 1, 1983; Velmarae Dunn Papers, Archives and Special Collections, Southeastern Louisiana University; "Hammond Vertical File," Southeastern Louisiana University Library, Hammond, La.

HAMPTON, Wade
, planter, congressman, soldier. Born, Halifax County, Va., 1752. Received a good education. Engaged in agricultural pursuits. Removed to South Carolina; joined the command of Gen. Thomas Sumter. Married (1) Mrs. Martha Epps Howell, 1783. Married (2) Harriet Flud, 1786, one son, Wade (b. 1791). Married (3) Mary Cantey, 1801, daughter Caroline Martha married John Smith Preston (q.v.). Elected as a Democrat to the Fourth Congress, March 4, 1795, to March 3, 1797; presidential elector, 1801; elected to Eighth Congress from South Carolina, March 4, 1803, to March 3, 1805. Commissioned colonel in United States Army, October 1808 and brigadier general, February 1809. Assigned to duty in New Orleans as commander of federal troops in southern division. Ordered by Gov. W. C. C. Claiborne (q.v.) in January 1811 to quell a slave rebellion that had erupted along the Mississippi River above New Orleans. Purchased Houmas Plantation, 1812, near present-day Burnside, La.; also owned and resided at Orange Grove Plantation, near New Orleans. Appointed major general, March 2, 1813. Served in War of 1812 until resignation on April 6, 1814. Reputed to be the wealthiest planter in the United States and the owner of 3,000 slaves in 1830. Died, Columbia, S. C., February 4, 1835; interred Trinity Churchyard, J.B.C. Sources: Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1949 (1950); Dictionary of American Biography, VII (1946); Walter Prichard, et al., eds., "Southern Louisiana and Southern Alabama in 1819: The Journal of James Leander Cathcart," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XXVIII (1945); James H. Dormon, "The Persistent Specter: Slave Rebellion in Territorial Louisiana," Louisiana History, XVIII (1977).

HANCOCK, Winfield Scott, soldier. Born, Montgomery Square, Pa., February 14, 1824; son of Benjamin Franklin Hancock and Elizabeth Hoxworth. Education: Norristown (Pa.) Academy, U. S. Military Academy, 1840-1844. Married, January 24, 1850, Almira Russell of St. Louis, Mo. Two children. Military service: lieutenant, Sixth Infantry, stationed in Texas, 1845-1846; Mexican War service: second lieutenant, U. S. Army; distinguished himself at Battles of Contreras, Churubusco, Molino del Rey and Chapultepec; breveted first lieutenant; Indian campaigns: regimental quartermaster and adjutant, Upper Missouri area, 1848-1855; captain, Seminole War, 1855; participated in Harvey's campaign to Utah. Civil War service: brigadier general of volunteers, September 23, 1861; organized and trained the Army of the Potomac; served under McClellan at Battles of Crampton's Pass, South Mountain, Antietam, and Fredericksburg, 1862; promoted to rank of major general of volunteers, November 29, 1862; corps commander at Gettysburg, 1863, and Spotsylvania, 1864; commissioned brigadier general, regular army, August 12, 1864; major general, regular army, July 26, 1866; commander, military department of Louisiana and Texas from November 29, 1867 to March 18, 1868. As military governor: revoked existing regulations requiring freedmen to be placed on jury lists; removed from office nine Republican members of New Orleans City Council for ordering an election without his authorization; when ordered by President Grant to reinstate council, he resigned and requested a transfer. Post-Louisiana career: commander, Department of Dakota, 1870-1872; Division of the Atlantic, 1872-1876; personal envoy from President Rutherford B. Hayes to Gov. Francis T. Nicholls (q.v.) with plea for clemency regarding T. C. Anderson, a Republican member of the state returns board accused of perjury and publishing false election results in a nationally sensational trial, February 1878; commander, Department of the East, 1876-1880. Active in the Democratic party: unsuccessful Democratic candidate for president, 1880. Died, Governors Island, N.Y., February 9, 1886; interred Norristown, Pa. C.A.B. Sources: Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607-1896 (1967); Dictionary of American Biography, VII (1946); Garnie W. McGinty, Louisiana Redeemed (1941); Joe Gray Taylor, Louisiana Reconstructed (1974).

HANDY, "Captain" John
, jazz musician, alto saxophonist, clarinetist. Born, Pass Christian, Miss., June 24, 1900. Removed to New Orleans ca. 1918, when he began working with Tom "Kid" Albert. Played in mid-1920s with bands in Baton Rouge. Later played with Kid Rena, Buddy Petit, Jack Carey, Punch Miller, Chris Kelley and John Casimir's brass band. Made tours of England and Europe, accompanied Kid Shiek on 1967 tour of Japan. Recorded on Icon in 1962 and in 1967 on GHB, RCA Victor, and an English label. Appeared at Preservation Hall, usually with Kid Shiek. Married Mabel Moore. Children: Mrs. Charles Snead, Mrs. Neville Johnson, John III, and Roy. Died, Pass Christian, Miss., January 12, 1971; interred Live Oak Cemetery. H.C. Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, January 17, 1971; Noel Rockmore, Preservation Hall Portraits (1968); John Chilton, Who's Who of Jazz (1972); Second Line, January/February, 1971.

HARALSON, Archibald
, politician. Born, July 5, 1792; son of Herndon Haralson and Mary Murphy. Education: Princeton University. Married, 1813, Thérèse Lodoiska Augustine Pont-Brieullet, daughter of French military officer killed in Saint-Domingue insurrection. Admitted to Louisiana bar, ca. 1822; co-author (with Alexander Barrow) of pamphlet which resulted in impeachment of Feliciana Parish judge Thomas W. Chinn (q.v.), 1826. Editor, Louisiana Journal, St. Francisville newspaper, 1829. Appointed by Gov. A. B. Roman (q.v.) to be district attorney, Third Judicial District, 1833; elected to that position, 1837. Died, October 29, 1839, of yellow fever; interred West Feliciana Parish. E.K.D. Sources: Elrie Robinson, Early Feliciana Politics (1936); Grace Church Parish Register.

HARALSON, Bertrand
, politician. Born, Laurel Grove Plantation, near St. Francisville, La., May 5, 1859; son of Bertrand Haralson, Sr. (parish recorder, 1847-1856, register, State Land Office, 1846-1850, and parish judge, 1873-1874) and Frances Tempel Pierce. Education: local schools. Parish Democratic Executive Committee, chairman, 1901; appointed West Feliciana Parish assessor, 1892; elected assessor, 1896-1900, 1908-1920, succeeded by son Francis Bertrand Haralson, who remained in office until 1963. Married Jennie Percy Whicher, 1889. Died, July 31, 1920; interred Grace Church Cemetery, St. Francisville. E.K.D. Sources: Oath Books, West Feliciana Parish, St. Francisville True Democrat, Silver Anniversary Edition, 1917; August 7, 1920; Grace Church Register.

HARDI DE BOISBLANC, Pierre, attorney for vacant estates, French Superior Council. Born, La Rochelle, France. Family involved in extensive merchant-trading ventures between La Rochelle and New Orleans in the 1750s and 1760s. Married Marie Rose Charlotte Tatin, daughter of Sebastien Tatin (New Orleans merchant) and Rosa Le Mercier. One son: Guillaume Auguste (b. April 1, 1752). Following death of wife, purchased and managed extensive holdings of urban real estate in New Orleans. A close friend of Nicolas Chauvin de La Frénière, fils and Denis-Nicolas Foucault (q.v.), was elected attorney for vacant estates by the Superior Council in the early 1760s. Following the expulsion of Spanish governor Antonio de Ulloa (q.v.), elected to an expanded Superior Council, October 29, 1768. Along with Pierre Poupet (q.v.), promoted the establishment of the Banque du Mont de Piété to create currency and provide loans. Arrested August 19, 1769, was charged and convicted of conspiring against the Spanish crown. Although sentenced to a six-year term in a Cuban prison, was released in December 1770, through the influence of his brother, a provincial of the Order of Recollets in Acquitaine. B.C. Sources: Jacqueline K. Voorhies, Some Eighteenth Century Louisianians; John Preston Moore, Revolt in Louisiana (1976); "Index to Baptisms, Little Red Church, 1739-55," Louisiana Genesis, I; "Judicial Records of the Spanish Cabildo," Louisiana State Museum, #177307241.

HARDIE, John Timmons, businessman, civic leader. Born, Huntsville, Ala., November 29, 1829; son of John Hardie of County Fife, Scotland, and Mary Meade Hall. Married Ann Eliza Gary (1836-1912), daughter of William L. Gary and Frances E. Satterwhite, of Tuskegee, Ala. Children: Mary Frances (1855-1920); William (1857-1916), married Sue Covington Kearney; John Newton (1859-1960); Thomas Gary (1860-1933), married Louise Carter; Ann Eliza (1862-1865); Joseph (1866-1916), married Lucia Huger; Helen Hardie (1868-1924), married Albert Baldwin, Jr. (q.v.); Samuel Jamison (1870-1871); Lewis Hall (1872-1941), married Alice Stauffer, granddaughter of Gen. Richard Taylor (q.v.); Henry Mellon (1875-1931), married Louise Rainey; Leila (1875-1943), married Robert Moore; Isabella (1880-1944), married Henderson Barkley. Cotton factor and commission merchant. President, Mutual National Bank; charter member, New Orleans Cotton Exchange; ruling elder, First Presbyterian Church; member, Board of Liquidation of the City Debt; director, Howard Memorial Library; charter member, board of administrators, Tulane Educational Fund; organizer of Wesson Mills. Died, New Orleans, April 10, 1895. G.D. Sources: Family papers, newspaper obituaries, National Cyclopedia of American Biography (1906).

HARDIN, J. Fair
, attorney, historian. Born, Mansfield, La., October 27, 1893; son of Thomas R. Hardin and Sarah M. Fair. Education: public schools of Lincoln Parish; Kentucky Wesleyan College, B. A. and B. S., 1911. Studied law and was admitted into practice in 1915. World War I service: went to France as a captain in command of Company "G", 153rd Infantry, Thirty-ninth Division. While in France, transferred to the judge advocate general, Louisiana National Guard. Appointed assistant U. S. district attorney for the Western District of Louisiana in 1921. Was a noted historian of northwestern Louisiana and authored a three-volume work entitled Northwestern Louisiana: A History of the Watershed of the Red River, 1714-1937. Past president of Shreveport Bar Association and member of Louisiana and American Bar associations. Married August 22, 1922, Mary Hannah Hudson, daughter of William H. Hudson. One child, Jack Fair Hardin. Member, Kiwanis, Louisiana Reserve Officers Association, American Legion, Masons and Shrine. Studied and wrote history as an avocation. Died, October 30, 1940. P.L.M. Source: J. Fair Hardin, Northwestern Louisiana (1939).

HARDTNER, Henry E., businessman, conservationist, "Father of Forestry in the South." Born, Pineville, La., 1870. Began experimental reforestation project on his Urania Lumber Company lands in Central Louisiana. Appointed chairman of state commission for the Conservation of Natural Resources, ca. 1908. 1910 commission issued six-point forestry program that became the foundation for Louisiana's subsequent forestry legislation. First state representative from LaSalle Parish, 1910-1920; state senator, 1920-1924. Spearheaded legislation to encourage reforestation projects in cutover areas, 1913. Died in auto accident, 1935. A.C.B. Source: Author's research.

HARDY, James Hamilton, politician. Born in Maryland, 1835; son of Thomas Sibert Hardy and Helena Anne Hamilton. Removed with family to St. Landry Parish, La., sometime before the census of 1840. Father owned plantation near Grand Coteau. Education unknown. Civil War service: enlisted May 17, 1861, Company K, Third Louisiana Regiment; discharged August 13, 1861. Nominated for the office of secretary of state by the Democratic State Convention meeting in New Orleans, on October 3, 1865. Elected November 6, by vote of 20,869 to 4,881 for T. J. Edwards, candidate for the National Conservative Union Party. Refused, ca. June 27, 1866, to sign order for an election to fill vacancies for the reassembly of the constitutional convention of 1864. Removed from office by order of General Mower on November 21, 1867; order suspended November 22, by General Grant. Hardy reinstated December 19, 1867, by Gen. Winfield Scott Hancock (q.v.). Defeated for re-election in April 1868 by Republican George Boree. Removed from office on June 27, 1868, by order of General Buchanan. Remained in New Orleans. Died, September 1, 1879, at Mound Place, Bayou Teche, near Patterson, La. P.C.L. Sources: National Archives Microfilm Publications, Population Schedules Census, 1840; and ibid., 1850; New Orleans Daily Picayune, October 4, 1865; September 6, 1879; Report of the Auditor of Publilc Accounts, to the General Assembly of the State of Louisiana, December 31, 1865 (1866); Reports of the Secretary of State and the State Librarian to the General Assembly of the State of Louisiana. Session, January 1867 (1867); John Rose Ficklen, History of Reconstruction in Louisiana (Through 1868) (1940; reprinted., 1966); Walter McGehee Lowery, "The Political Career of James Madison Wells" Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XXXI (1948); Donald J. Hébert, comp., Southwest Louisiana Records, 33 vols. (1974-1984); Joseph G. Dawson, "The Long Ordeal: Army Generals and Reconstruction in Louisiana, 1862-1877," 2 vols. (Ph. D. dissertation, Louisiana State University, 1978).

HARGIS, Levi Michel
, educator. Born, Donaldsonville, La., December 20, 1834; son of Thomas Hargis and Felonise Caillouet. Education: private schools. Civil War service: corporal and first lieutenant, Company G, Eighteenth Louisiana Infantry Regiment. Married Marie Rose Aucoin, January 23, 1867. Four children. Taught and served as principal at Thibodaux College for twenty-two years. Ran a private school for three years. Returned as principal of Thibodaux College, 1900-1908. Again ran a private school, 1908-1911. A.W.B. Sources: Alcde Fortier, Louisiana, 3 vols. (1914), Vol. III; Arthur W. Bergeron, Jr., ed., Reminiscences of Uncle Silas: A History of the Eighteenth Louisiana Infantry Regiment (1981).

HARKNESS (or HARK)
. Negro slave who trained famous race horse Lecompte, at Dentley Plantation of Thomas Jefferson Wells (q.v.), between Lecompte and Forest Hill, La. Called one of the most astute trainers in the country prior to the Civil War. Other horses trained by Harkness (or Hark) besides Lecompte were War Dance and Prioress. S.E. Sources: George Mason Graham Stafford, The Wells Family and Allied Families (1942); George Mason Graham Stafford, Three Pioneer Families of Rapides Parish (1946).

HARMAN, Sidney Johnston
, financier and civic leader. Born, Big Blossom Prairie, near Paris, Tex., August 1868. Orphaned early, he was reared by his uncle, George Watkins, in Clinton, Mo., where he attended public schools. At 15 began clerking in uncle's grocery. In 1888 returned to Big Blossom Prairie and became cottonseed buyer for the Sherman Cotton Oil Co. In 1890 became supervisor of purchase for the Paris Oil and Cotton Company. In 1896 removed to Shreveport and built Bossier's first cotton mill, the Shreveport Cotton Oil Company. Expanded it to include a soap factory. Acquired a number of mills in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas. In 1903, joined E. G. Scales and Company, a cotton and stock brokerage firm, later acquiring the Scales interest and operating the firm under the name of S. J. Harman and Co. In 1912, built the Independent Ice and Cold Storage plant in Shreveport. Many business and civic activities; director, First National Bank; director, Louisiana and Arkansas Railroad. Steward, First Methodist Church; member, board of trustees, Centenary College. Built in 1929 an orphanage for boys in Ruston, La., which he turned over to the Methodist Conference. Married, 1901, Bessie Louise Stringfellow. Children: Bessie Harman Barrow and Georgia Agnes Harman Chandler. Died, 1947. M.A. Source: Author's research.

HARMANSON, John Henry
, congressman. Born, Norfolk, Va., January 15, 1803. Pursued classical studies and was graduated from Jefferson College, Washington, Miss. Removed to Avoyelles Parish, La., in 1830 and engaged in agricultural pursuits. Studied law; was admitted to the bar and practiced law. Married Rachel Selser, February 5, 1833. Member of the state senate in 1844; elected as a Democrat to the Twenty-ninth, Thirtieth, and Thirty-first Congresses; aggressively supported "The Swamp Land Act" whereby Congress ceded the swamplands (public lands) to the state of Louisiana; served from March 4, 1845, until his death in New Orleans, La., October 24, 1850; interred Moreau Plantation Cemetery, Pointe Coupée Parish, La. J.B.C. Sources: Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1949 (1950); Jeraldine Dufour LaCour, Brides Book of Avoyelles Parish, Louisiana, 1808-1855 (1979); Sam Mims, "Louisiana's Administration of Swamp Land Funds," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XXVIII (1945).

HARPER, Will Meyer
, jurist, civic leader. Born, Pine Bluff, Ark., June 26, 1893; son of William Ward Harper and Elizabeth Alice McCaskill. Removed to Monroe in 1912. Education: schools of Pine Bluff; legal study with Joseph B. Dawkins of Monroe. Admitted Louisiana bar, 1924; elected Monroe city judge, 1928, served continuously almost forty years until retirement in 1967. Married (1), 1920, Georgia Black Mowen (1891-1920); married (2), September 14, 1922, Vyvian Humphnes Wallace of Oxford, Miss. (1894-1951). Children: Vyvian Emma Frazier (b. 1925); Alice Joy Marshall (b. 1927); Billie Addylee Jackson (b. 1931). Married (3), July 8, 1954, Mabel Ann Walker (b. 1907) of Dodson and Ruston, La. Organizer of Louisiana City Judges Association; Juvenile Court Advisory Committee; Monroe Shrine Club; president of Rotary Club, Shrine Club, Ouachita Valley Boy Scout Council, and Monroe Little Theatre; dean of Louisiana Court-of-Record Judges; special adviser to Louisiana Law Institute; member of Lions Club, Red Cross, National Association of Juvenile Judges, Fourth District Bar, Louisiana Bar, Louisiana Juvenile Probation Council, U. S. Marshall's Association, and Presbyterian church. Served on Ouachita Parish Selective Service Board, Civilian Advisory Committee for U. S. Fourth Army, and Louisiana Supreme Court Advisory Council. Died, Monroe, November 4, 1982; interred Monroe Riverview Cemetery. W.A.W. Sources: Grave markers, Monroe Riverview Cemetery; Harper Family Bible and private papers; obituary, Monroe News Star-World, November 5, 1982.

HARPER, Wiliam Poynot, soldier, law enforcement official, civil sheriff. Born, New Orleans, November 5, 1834; son of Henry Sidney Harper and Virginia Poynot. Confederate service: entered the Confederate Army, June 7, 1861, at Camp Moore near Ainite, Louisiana; first lieutenant, Company B, later redesignated as Company H, Crescent Rifles, of the Seventh Regiment of Louisiana Volunteers; 1861, participated in the First Battle of Manassas (Bull Run); promoted to rank of captain; 1862, participated in the Valley Campaign, the Seven Days Campaign and the Battle of Sharpsburg (Antietam); wounded at Sharpsburg, captured and later paroled; 1863, assigned to the staff of Brig. Gen. Francis T. Nicholls (q.v.), commanding general of the Second Louisiana Brigade, Army of Northern Virginia; participated in the Battle of Chancellorsville, wounded and captured again at the Battle of Rappahannock, sent to Johnson's Island, Ohio; 1864, exchanged and retired as a captain of infantry, became a member of the Invalid Corps; 1865, served on General Nicholls staff in the Trans-Mississippi Department. Married Mary Lelia Montan, daughter of Anthony Montan and Ann Eliza McKee of Baton Rouge. Children: Lelia Douglas (b. 1866), Thomas Dover (b. 1867), Nina Ellison (b. 1869), Virginia Eliza (b. 1871) and Isabelle Montan (b. 1874). Appointed, June 8, 1870, to serve as adjutant general of the Second Brigade, First Division of the Louisiana State Militia with the rank of captain; July 22, 1870, promoted to the rank of major. Appointed on June 14, 1872, to serve as adjutant general of the Louisiana State Militia with the rank of brigadier general; resigned on November 21, 1872. Member, Democratic party; 1872, elected to the office of civil sheriff of Orleans Parish; took office on November 21, 1872. Member, Pickwick Club of New Orleans and Mistick Krewe of Comas and Rex. Died, New Orleans, December 3, 1874; interred Metairie Cemetery. W.H.F. Sources: William H. Forman, Jr., "William P. Harper in War and Reconstruction," Louisiana History, XIII (1972); William H. Forman, Jr., "William P. Harper and the Early New Orleans Carnival," Louisiana History, XIV (1973); Evans J. Casso, Louisiana Legacy: A History of the State National Guard (1976).

HARRIS, John Spafford, U. S. senator. Born, Truxton, Cortland County, N. Y., December18, 1825. Education: common schools. Removed to Millwaukee, Wis., 1846; employed as clerk in a mecantile establishment, 1846-1849; continued education; engaged in mercantile pursuits, 1849-1863. Removed to Natchez, La., 1863, and at the close of the Civil War was one of the largest cotton planters in the state. Member, state constitutional convention, 1868, being chosen one of a committee of seven to conduct the affairs of the state until the constitution should be adopted. Served in the state senate in 1868. Upon the readmission of Louisiana to representation was elected as a Republican to the United States Senate and served from July 9, 1868, to March 3, 1871. Appointed surveyor general for Montana by President Arthur on November 23, 1881. Died, Butte, Mont., January 25, 1906; interred Forestvale Cemetery, Helena, Mont. J.B.C. Source: Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1949 (1950).

HARRIS, Joseph D. "Joe"
, saxophonist. Born, Paulina, La. Removed to New Orleans' Gert Town area, 1920. Worked with celebrated musicians including "Papa" Celestin (q.v.), Fats Domino, Albert "Papa" French and Dave Bartholomew. Featured on an album recorded in McAllister Auditorium, Tulane University in 1973, with part of his work recorded in the university's Jazz Archives. Lifetime member of the Musicians Mutual Protective Union, Local 174-496, of the American Federation of Musicians. Died, New Orleans, March 1, 1980. H.C. Source: New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, March 3, 1980.

HARRIS, T(homas) H, educator. Born, near Arizona, Claiborne Parish, La., March 26, 1869; son of Rettie Rebecca Milner and the Reverend Austin Harris, a Baptist minister and teacher of languages; was christened Lee Marcus but became legally known as Thomas H (middle initial stood for nothing); attended Arizona Academy, conducted by his father, for one or two summer sessions; in 1889, at age 20, enrolled in Lisbon Academy and attended for eight months; attended the 1891-1892 session at Homer College; taught school in Claiborne and Winn Parishes, 1892-1893; enrolled at Louisiana State Normal School (now Northwestern State University) in Natchitoches in the fall of 1893. Accepted post of assistant principal at Central High School, Lake Charles. While teaching in Winnsboro in 1896 married (1) Minnie Earle (d. 1899) and became a Methodist. One child Sadie Guice. Elected principal of St. Landry High School, Opelousas, 1897. was a part-time student and teacher at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge. Married (2), 1900, Mary Elizabeth Blackshear Evans, a widow with three small sons. Attended the University of Chicago in 1900; studied at Harvard in the summer of 1901; became principal of Baton Rouge High School in 1903; studied courses in law at Louisiana State University while employed in Baton Rouge; resigned from Baton Rouge position and sold life insurance. Appointed state superintendent of public schools in August 1908 and retained position until 1940. Received B. A. degree from LSU, 1922, and M. A., 1924; received honorary doctor of law degree from LSU in 1935. Was the dominant figure in some of the accomplishments in state education during his tenure: the system of school finance combined local and state support; consolidated schools replaced one-room country schools; standards for teacher certification were raised to the level of the baccalaureate degree; teacher-benefit laws as to tenure and retirement were enacted; a system of state-operated trade schools was established, and state colleges became four-year degree granting institutions with well-developed physical plants and improved financial support. Most appreciated by him was the establishment by the legislature, 1938, of the T. H Harris Scholarships by which an annual appropriation of $40,000 helps students secure a college education. Died, February 24, 1942; interred Roselawn Memorial Park, Baton Rouge. J.B.C. Sources: Rodney Cline, Pioneer Leaders and Early Institutions in Louisiana Education (1969); New Orleans Times-Picayune, February 25, 1942.

HARROD, Benjamin Morgan
, engineer. Born, New Orleans, February 19, 1837; son of Charles Harrod and Mary Morgan. Education: private tutors; Harvard, A. B., 1856; A. M., 1859. Civil War: enlisted, 1861, Crescent Rifles; second lieutenant, Second Louisiana Regular Artillery. First lieutenant, siege of Vicksburg; captured there, later paroled. Appointed to Second Regiment of Engineers, ordered to Petersburg, Va. With Lee at surrender at Appomattox. After war resumed engineering profession, New Orleans. Chief engineer, State of Louisiana, 1877-1880. Member, Louisiana River Commisison, 1879-1904. City engineer of New Orleans, 1888-1902. Chief engineer in charge of constructing water and sewerage systems of New Orleans, 1895-1902. Named by President Theodore Roosevelt to Panama Canal Commission. President, 1897-1898, Society of Civil Engineers; member, Louisiana Engineering Society. Member, Round Table and Pickwick clubs. An art lover, notable private collection. Consulting engineer for construction of Delgado Art Museum. Ardent supporter of Audubon Society. Married (1) Harriet Uhlhorn; married (2) Eugenia Uhlhorn (Harriets sister). No children. Episcopalian. Died, New Orleans, September 7, 1912; interred Metairie Cemetery. G.R.C. Sources: Who Was Who in America, 1897-1942 (1967); New Orleans Daily Picayune, September 8, 1912.

HART, Rosa Lucille, cheerleader, educator, theater director. Born, August 27, 1900, in Woodville, Miss. Removed to Lake Charles, La., 1910, with family. Became the first female university cheerleader in the United States while attending Sophie Newcomb College in New Orleans. An active worker in the Tulane Alumni Association. Founded the Lake Charles Little Theater and was its director for thirty years; presented a Shakespearean revival which attracted protographers from magazines throughout the country a few weeks before her death. Taught at Lake Charles High School and worked in fathers insurance agency; was world traveler and knew presidents and prime ministers; was praised by actors, Charles Laughton, Vincent Price, and John Barrymore, as well as Gen. John J. Pershing. Best remembered for providing food and lodging for young writers, artists, and actors down on their luck. Died, June 7, 1964; interred Opelousas (La.) Jewish Cemetery. J.B.C. Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, June 8, 1964; Lake Charles American Press, obituary, June 8, 1964.

HARTLEY, Charles Augustus
, civil engineer. Born, Heworth (Gateshead), County Durham, England, February 3, 1825; second son of William Augustus Hartley and Lillias Tod. Education: local schools and apprenticed to Civil Engineers in Bishop Auckland and Leeds. Contractors engineer building section of Scottish Central Railway, 1845-1848; engineer, under Joseph Locke, for extensions of Sutton Harbour, Plymouth, England, 1848-1855; captain, Royal Engineers, in the Turkish Contingent at Kurtch in the Crimean War, 1855-1856. Appointed engineer-in-chief, European Commission of the Danube in 1856, and at Sulina constructed provisional jetties which in 1861, cleared the bar and gave an entrance depth of 17 ft., subsequently increased to 20 ft. when jetties consolidated in 1870-1872. Visited the United States, 1873-1874 and again in 1875, agreeing with James B. Ends and Gen. J. G. Barnard that the mouth of the Mississippi should be cleared by means of jetties, and recommending the use of the South Pass. In 1875 appointed by the president to be a member of the board of engineers to report and advise on the details of jetty construction being carried out by Eads at the South Pass; visited this Pass and New Orleans with board in November 1875. Consulting engineer to European Commission of the Danube 1872 to 1906 and designed all works for straightening Sulina branch from Toulcha to Black Sea. British member of the International Technical Commission of the Suez Canal, 1884-1906; designed improvements to the harbours of the Odessa and Durban. Died, London, February 20, 1915; interred Highgate Cemetery. C.W.S.H. Sources: Dictionary of National Biography, 1912-21; Inst. Civil Engineers, Minutes of Proceedings, Vol. 200; E. L. Corthell, A History of the Jetties at the Mouth of the Mississippi (1881); Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts, Report No. NRA 20358, 77/1 (Hartley Papers in possession of C. W. S. Hartley).

HARVEY, Martin Luther
, university administrator, church leader. Born, Newberg, N. Y., August 11, 1911; son of Martin Luther Harvey and Rosa Monroe. Education: schools of Newberg; New York University. Removed to Baton Rouge, La., 1944. Married, 1943, Clarie Collins, of Jackson, Miss. Active member of A.M.E. Zion Church; Phi Delta Kappa Honorary Fraternity; Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity and Alpha Xi Chapter of Sigma Pi Phi Fraternity, American College Personnel Association; board of directors, Southern Regional Council; executive committee of the American College and University Concert and Art Administrators, Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps Selection Board. Served as national director for the A.M.E. Zion Church; traveled to Asia, Africa, Europe and other parts of the world attending ecumenical conferences and meeting with student groups in higher education. Died, Baton Rouge, March 23, 1976; interred Mississippi. G.W.B. Sources: Charles Vincent, A Centennial History of Southern University A & M College, 1880-1980 (1981); obituary, Southern University Archival Collection.

HARWOOD, Thomas Franklin
, academic. Born, Kerrville, Tex., October 26, 1918; son of Miller Harwood and Clair L.everton Harwood. Education: Certificate of Honor for scholastic record, Franklin Junior High School, May 23, 1932; valedictorian, Taft High School, June 1935; A. A., valedictorian, Schreiner Institute (Junior College), Kerrville, June 1937; University of Texas, B. A., English Literature, 1946. Service in U. S. Army from August 8, 1941, to 1953. During World War II, duty in Algeria, Morocco, Italy, France, Germany, and Austria. Later service in Japan and Virginia. University of Texas, M.A., 1954; major, History, minor, English Literature. Thesis: "The Indian Problem on the First Frontier:Virginia,1584-1622," supervised by Rudolph L. Biesele, with W. A. Bultmann, a visitor in English History as second reader. University of Texas, Ph. D., 1959. Dissertation: "Great Britain and American Antislavery" (2 vols., 838 pp.), supervised by Barnes F. Lathrop, with committee including J. Harry Bennett (English history), Philip Graham (American literature), and Walter Prescott Webb. Harwood maintained a straight A record in graduate school, held a Texas Colonial Dames Scholarship in 1955, and a Southern Fellowship Fund scholarship in 1956. He became a teaching assistant at the University of Texas in 1955. Before completion of his dissertation, Harwood began teaching as a member of the original faculty at the quickly organized Louisiana State University at New Orleans in September of 1958. He served as assistant professor, 1959-1966, and associate professor, 1966-1971. Although a potentially outstanding scholar, Harwood's publishing promise remained largely unfulfilled. His three articles are "British Evangelical Abolitionism and American Churches in the 1830s," Journal of Southern History, XXVIII (1962); "British Evangelism: A Devisive Influence on Protestant Churches," in Richard 0. Curry, ed., The Abolitionists: Reformers or Fanatics? (New York, 1965); and "The Abolitionist Image of Louisiana and Mississippi," Louisiana History, VII (1966). He contributed a book review to Louisiana History, VII (1966). L.S.U.N.O., name changed to the University of New Orleans (UNO) in 1974, designated a major street on campus to be named in honor of Harwood. Died unexpectedly, New Orleans, September 1, 1971. J.P.M. Sources: Thomas Franklin Harwood Collection, Archives, Earl K. Long Library, University of New Orleans; correspondence with Professor Barnes F. Lathrop of the University of Texas, September 15, 1982; obituary, The Driftwood: Voice of the University Community, September 3, 1971; conversations with Joseph G. Tregle, Jr., and Homer Hitt; Jerah Johnson, ed., UNO Prisms, 1958-1983 (New Orleans, 1983).

HASSELMANNS, Louis
, opera and orchestra conductor, academic. Born, Paris, France, July 25, 1878; son of a well-known harpist. Studied at Paris Conservatory of Music, winning first prize at age 15. Appointed premier conductor at Paris Opéra-Comique, 1909; founded Montreal Opera, 1911; first conductor of Chicago Civic Opera Ravinia season, 1918-1930. Leading conductor of the "French Wing" of the Metropolitan Opera, New York, 1922-1936, conductor of Chicago Opera 1930-1944. Conducted world premieres of Faure's Penelope, other works; American premieres of Ravel's L'Heure Espagnole, Massenet's Le Roi de Lahore and the Metropolitan Opera premiere of Debussy's Pelleas et Melisande. Also conducted numerous symphony orchestras; awarded the French Legion of Honor. Served in Louisiana State University School of Music faculty as head of the chamber music department and opera conductor from 1936 until retirement in 1948. Joined Loyola (New Orleans) University as first head of the opera department, 1950-1951. Died, San Juan, Puerto Rico, December 27, 1957. L.I.W. Sources: Louisiana Leader, November 2, 1936; LSU Alumni News, June, 1948; New Orleans Times-Picayune, September 24, 1950; LSU Daily Reveille, October 15, 1953; Baton Rouge State-Times, obituary, December 30, 1957.

HAUCK, Amelia Mignon
, see HAUK, Minnie

HAUGHERY, Margaret Gaffney
, humanitarian, philanthropist. Daughter of William Gaffney and Margaret O'Rourke. Religion: Catholic. Migrated to Baltimore, Md., in 1818 with parents. Parents died of yellow fever in 1822. Went to live with a Welsh friend of her family, Mrs. Richardson. Received no education. Married: Charles Haughery, October 10, 1835, in Baltimore cathedral. Went to New Orleans aboard Hyperion, November 1835. Had one child, a daughter, Frances, born ca. 1836. Her husband in ill health took a sea voyage on recommendation of his doctor, but died after reaching his Irish homeland. Her infant daughter also died. As a widow, worked in the laundry at the St. Charles Hotel and later for the Sisters of Charity at the Poydras Orphan Asylum. The rest of her life was devoted to furthering the cause of orphans. Worked closely in association with Sister Regis to found an orphanage on New Levee Street in 1836. Went into the dairy business and used her profits to aid the orphans. Later helped in the founding of the St. Theresa Asylum, the St. Elizabeth's Asylum, the St. Vincent's Infant Asylum, and a number of other such institutions. Aided the sick during yellow-fever epidemics and the poor and displaced during the Civil War. In 1859 took over a bankrupt bakery and turned it into a profitable enterprise which gave her one of the largest fortunes in New Orleans. Despite her wealth, owned only two dresses and a simple bonnet. Adopted Bernard Klotz, who later inherited the bakery which became Klotz Cracker Factory. Died, February 9, 1882; interred St. Louis Cemetery II. First statue in America to honor a woman was set up in her memory at Prytania and Camp streets in Margaret Place. J.J.J. Sources: Grace King, New Orleans; The Place and the People (1895); Raymond J. Martinez, The Immortal Margaret Haughery (1956); The WPA Guide to New Orleans (reprint, 1983); New Orleans Daily Picayune, February 10, 1882.

HAUK, Minnie (Amelia Mignon Hauck)
, opera singer. Born, New York, November 16, 1851. Father, a German refugee from the 1848 revolution, moved the family to Fort Leavenworth, Kan., then to Summer City, leaving when a tornado destroyed the farm. They embarked on a houseboat (possibly built by the father) to gain Louisville via the Missouri and Mississippi, but when a steamer sank the boat, ended up in New Orleans. Studied with Gregorio Curto and made her debut at age twelve singing "Casta Diva" from Bellini's Norma and florid arias from Rossini's La Gazza Ladra and Auber's Les Diamants de la couronne at a benefit for Civil War widows and orphans. After the fall of New Orleans, sent back to New York with her family on a Federal warship. Studied with Achille Errani. Made a semi-public New York debut in La Somnanbula and a public one in L'Etoile du Nord before her fourteenth birthday. Created the role of Juliette in Gounod's Romeo et Juliette, November 15, 1867. Sang in Paris, London, St. Petersburg, Moscow, Vienna, Budapest, Berlin, Brunswick, Stuttgart, Cologne, Coblenz, Hanover, Weimar, and Brussels. Sang the first American Carmen (New York Academy of Music, October 23, 1878) and the first Manon (December 23, 1885). Sang at the Metropolitan Opera, 1890-1891. Organized her own company and toured the country in 1891, then retired from the stage after singing over a hundred roles. Sang Carmen some five hundred times in French, English, German and Italian. Her memoirs were published in 1925 as Memoirs of a Singer. Settled in Lucerne, Switzerland, with her husband, Baron Ernst von Hesse-Wartegg. Died in Lucerne, February 6, 1929. M.A. Sources: Oscar Thompson, The International Cyclopedia of Music and Musicians (1975); John S. Kendall, "The Friend of Chopin and Some Other New Orleans Musical Celebrities," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XXXI (1948).

HAYES, Margaret Isabella Green
, educator. Born, Franklin, Tenn., November 12, 1843; daughter of Benjamin Rogers White and Eliza Mothershed McKinney. Education: Nashville, Tenn., schools; John Stone Davis Institute, New Iberia, La.; Franklin College. Married, 1868, James Gethern Hayes, sheriff of St. Landry Parish, La. Two children died in infancy; two step-children: Clarence L. Hayes and Ida Hayes. Member, Methodist church, leader in local and state religious activities; St. Landry Parish Sunday School Association, 1914; Methodist Episcopal Church South Missionary Conference, New Orleans, 1915. Established Opelousas Female Institute, 1871, incorporated, August 13, 1885. Died, Opelousas, June 8, 1917; interred Myrtle Grove Cemetery. M.N.N. Sources: Tennessee Methodist, January 5, 1893; Journal of the Louisiana Conference Methodist Church, September 2, 1907; Opelousas Courier, December 1894; Opelousas St. Landry Clarion, June 23, 1910; Margaret Hayes scrapbook.

HAYNIE, Martin Luther, physician. Born, Maryland. Studied medicine, Philadelphia, ca. 1808. Because of "high recommendation as physician" given permission to settle in New Feliciana, July 1808. Commissioned surgeon-general of Republic of West Florida, 1810. Married Ann Stirling, daughter of Alexander Stirling (q.v.), 1811; practiced medicine in St. Francisville, 1811-1815; published treatises on treatment of fevers, 1813. Died, March 1815; interred New Orleans. E.K.D. Sources: West Feliciana Parish Records; various issues of the St. Francisville Time Piece, 1811-1815; John Duffy, ed., The Rudolph Matas History of Medicine in Louisiana (1962).

HAYS, Harry Thompson, soldier, politician. Born, Wilson County, Tenn., April 14, 1820; orphaned and reared by uncle, Wilkinson County, Miss. Education: St. Mary's College, Baltimore, Md. Distinguished service in Mexican War. Civil War record: elected colonel of Seventh Louisiana Volunteers, 1861; promoted to rank of brigadier general, July 25, 1862, as commander of First Louisiana Brigade, Army of Northern Virginia; originator of using "Rogues March" to drum soldiers out of army; distinguished service at First Manassas, Valley Campaign, Antietam, Second Battle of Fredericksburg, Second Battle of Winchester, Gettysburg and Wilderness Campaign; severely wounded at Port Republic and Spotsylvania; transferred to Trans-Mississippi Department, 1864, as acting major general. After Civil War resumed law practice in New Orleans. Political career: active in Whig party, serving as presidential elector in 1852; elected sheriff of Orleans Parish, 1866; accused of using deputies to attack carpetbag supporters in New Orleans riot, 1866; removed from office by Gen. Philip Sheridan (q.v.) same year for anti-government activities. Member of Tenth Ward Independent Liberal Club, an organization later affiliated with White League. Died, New Orleans, of Brights disease, August 21, 1876. T.L.J. Sources: Ezra J. Warner, Generals in Gray (1959); New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, August 22, 1876 (1955); Stuart O. Landry, The Battle of Liberty Place (1955); Report of the Select Committee on the New Orleans Riots (1867).

HAYWARD, Samuel Ellsworth
, civil servant. Born, May 25, 1918, New Orleans, La.; son of Samuel Ellsworth, Sr., and Nettie Ives Hayward. Education: Dillard University, A.B.; Southern University, M.A.; further study, Louisiana State University Graduate School; Federal workshops, seminars and short courses. Married Olga Loretta Hines (Southern University reference librarian), daughter of Samuel James and Lillie George Hines of Alexandria, La. Children: Ann Elizabeth and Olga Patricia (Mrs. William George Ryer). Served thirty-nine years in the United States Postal Service, including experience in the Washington, D. C., Post Office and the United States Postal Transportation Service in Louisiana and Texas. Supervisor of the Air Mail Department and later Equal Employment Opportunity Counselor in the main post office in Baton Rouge, La., and at the time of his death, Equal Employment Opportunity Investigator for the Southern Region of the United States Postal Service. Member, Central Congregational Church, New Orleans, from birth until 1955 when he joined St. Michael's Episcopal Church in Baton Rouge. Served on St. Michael's Mission Council and as treasurer of the Men's Club. Past president of the National Alliance of Postal Employees, Local 12, Baton Rouge and editor of the monthly publication of that organization. Member, Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, Early Risers, Kiwanis, National Association of Postal Supervisors, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Thirty-second Degree Mason, United Supreme Council of Scottish Rites, Prince Hall, Capital City Lodge No. 244, where he served as treasurer. World War II service: Ninety-third Division on Guadalcanal. Died March 11, 1980. O.L.H.H. Source: Author's research.

HAZEL, Arthur "Monk", jazz musician (drums, coronet/mellophone). Born, Harvey, La., August 15, 1903. Began playing in his teens with Emmett Hardy. Played mainly on drums, but doubled throughout his career. During the 1920s worked with many band leaders around New Orleans, Albert "Abbie" Brunies, Tony Porenti, Johnny Wiggs, etc. In the late 20s and early 30s led his own Bienville Roof Orchestra in New Orleans. Was on network radio in 1934 behind singer Gene Austin. Widely recorded. From the 1940s through the 1960s closely associated with Sharkey Bonano and Santo Pecora. Died, New Orleans, March 5, 1968. H.C. Sources: New Orleans States-Item, obituary, March 6, 1968; John Chilton, Who's Who of Jazz (1972); Al Rose and Edmond Souchon, New Orleans Jazz, A Family Album (1984).

HEAD, Octavia, see CLARK, Octavia Head

HEALY, George Peter Alexander
, portraitist. Born, Boston, Mass., 1813; son of Irish sea captain. Largely self-taught, opened first studio in Boston, 1830. Sought professional training, 1834, in studio of Baron Antoine Jean Gros in Paris, France. Studio disbanded 1835 on teacher's suicide. Traveled throughout Europe with minor commissions to 1838. Brought to attention of King Louis Philippe by U. S. Ambassador Gen. Cass. Copied pictures in collections of Queen Victoria (England) for French crown. Married Louisa Phipps (1819-1906), 1838. Several children. Sent to U. S. 1842, by French crown to paint American presidents and statesmen for French national collections (Versailles). Visited New Orleans, 1843, with brother Thomas Cantwell Healy (q.v.). Returned to New Orleans, 1845. Commuted between France and U. S. until 1855. Settled Chicago, Ill., 1855. Commissioned by Congress to paint U. S. presidents at $1,000 each for Executive Mansion. Return visits to New Orleans each year, 1857-1861. Painted many prominent Louisianians including Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard (q.v.). Union sympathizer. Returned to Europe, 1867, first to Italy, later to France. Portraits commissioned by Pope Pius IX and Romanian royal family. Remained in Paris ca. 1874-1892. Returned to Chicago, 1892. Died, Chicago, 1894. Lifetime oeuvre of over 500 portraits. V.L.G. Source: Author's research.

HEALY, George William
, journalist. Born, Natchez, Miss., September 22, 1905; son of George William Healy and Rosa Lee Longmire; grandson of Thomas Cantwell Healy (q.v.). Education: Natchez Institute; University of Mississippi, 1926. Worked at odd jobs for Natchez newspapers while in school. Began as a reporter for the Times-Picayune, November 17, 1926. Covered the great Mississippi Valley flood (1927), Huey P. Long's political career. Managing editor of Times-Picayune by World War II, editor of Times-Picayune, 1952-1972. Special representative, U. S. Office of Censorship, 1941-1942; consultant, Office of War Information, 1943; director, OWl domestic branch, 1944-1945. Chairman, Associated Press Managing Editors Association, 1944-1945; director, Associated Press, 1957-1966; vice-president, Associated Press, 1965-1966. President, Sigma Delta Chi (later, Society of Professional Journalists), American Society of Newspaper Editors. Treasurer, 1939, vice-president, 1942-1948, and director, 1948-?, Times-Picayune Publishing Corp. Director, WTPS radio station, 1950s. Trustee, Jefferson Military College, 1950-1962. Member: Methodist church, Mason, Recess (president, 1947-1948), Southern Yacht Club, Boston, Louisiana, International House (vice-president, 1964-1967); Circumnavigators (New York City); National Press (Washington); Mount Kenya Safari (East Africa). Married Margaret Alford, September 22, 1927. Children: George W. Healy III (b. 1930); Floyd Alford Healy (b. 1935). Autobiography, A Lifetime on Deadline (1976). Died, New Orleans, November 2, 1980; body donated to Tulane Medical Center. P.D.A. Sources: Obituary, New Orleans Times-Picayune, November 3, 1980; George W. Healy, Jr., A Lifetime on Deadline: Self-Portrait of a Southern Journalist (1976); Who's Who in America, v. 35 (1968-1969).

HEALY, Thomas Cantwell
, portraitist. Born, Albany, N. Y., December 7, 1820; son of William Healy and Mary Hicks. Removed with family to Boston, Mass., 1824. Studied, Paris, France, 1838, with elder brother, George Peter Alexander Healy (q.v.). Returned to U. S., opened portrait studio with brother John Reynolds Healy, 1842. Removed to New Orleans with George Peter Alexander Healy, 1843; established studios in New Orleans, 1845, 1862, 1868. Married, May 30, 1870, Charlotte Roberts of Claiborne County, Miss., daughter of John Roberts and Mahala Jones. Five children: George William (b. 1871), Thomas Burke (b. 1873), Mary Louisa Agnes (b. 1874), Maria Angela (b. 1875), John Roberts (b. 1877). Painted in Mississippi, 1843-1879. Exhibited Athenaeum, Boston, Mass., 1832, 1840; National Academy of Design, N. Y., 1839, 1842. Awarded: Mechanics' and Agricultural Fair, New Orleans, silver medal for head in oils, honorable mention for portraits in oil, with brother, 1868. Died, Claiborne County, Miss., December 10, 1889. R.M. Sources: The Historic New Orleans Collection, Encyclopaedia of New Orleans Artists, 1718-1918; Marie de Mare, G.P.A. Healy, American Artist.

HEARD, William Wright, governor. Born, Union Parish, La., April 28, 1853; son of Stephen S. Heard and Mary Ann Wright. Educated in the common schools and at the academy in Farmerville, La. Married, December 3, 1878, Isabelle Elizabeth Manning, daughter, of James Augustus Manning and Margaret Jane Graham. Children: William Wright, Jr. (died in infancy), Alma Margaret (died in infancy), Eva Augusta Heard (b. 1885), William Allen Heard (b. 1887), Manning Wright Heard (b. 1896), Louisiana Belle Heard (b. 1901), William Wright Heard III (b. 1905). Elected clerk of the district court, 1876, serving as clerk or deputy clerk until 1892. Entered the state house of representatives in 1884 and the state senate in 1888. Elected state auditor of Public Accounts in 1892, reelected, 1896. In 1900 elected governor. While governor ended the state convict lease system; a state board of education and parish school boards were created; state banks were placed on a sound financial basis; a Bureau of Labor Statistics, an Oyster Commission, and a Crop Pest Commission were created. A leprosarium and a black insane asylum were established. Upon retirement returned to the accounting business in New Orleans. Became vice-president of the State Bank of New Orleans in 1904; moderator of Concord Baptist Association in the state; president for one term of the State Baptist Convention; vice-chancellor for two terms, and for one term was grand chancellor of the Knights of Pythias of Louisiana. Died, New Orleans, June 1, 1926; interred Metairie Cemetery. S. R. Sources: Miriam G. Reeves, The Governors of Louisiana (1962); Roy Clashan, American Governors and Gubernatorial Elections, 1775-1975 (1975); letter of May 11, 1983, from Luther E. Hall, Jr., grandson of Governor Heard.

HEARN, Patrick Lafcadio, author. Born on Levkas (then Leucadia or Lefcadia), Greece, June 27, 1850, to an Irish army surgeon, Charles Bush Hearn, and a Greek islander, Rosa Antonia Cassimati. Removed to Dublin, Ireland, with his mother in August 1852. His mother went back to Greece in 1854 never to return. The marriage was annulled in 1856 and both parents subsequently remarried. Lafcadio was left in the care of his father's aunt, Sara Brenane, a staunch Catholic. In 1862, he was sent to the Institution Eccldsiastique, at Yvetot, France. In September 1863, he entered St. Cuthbert's, a Catholic school at Ushaw, near Durham, where he remained till October 28, 1867. It was there that he lost the sight of one eye in a school yard accident. The remaining eye, overstrained, tended to bulge later in life, and, combined with his short stature (5' 3") and dark complexion, gave him a strange appearance. Immigrated 1869 to Cincinnati, Ohio, in search of employment. In 1872 the Cincinnati Enquirer published his review of Tennyson's Idyls of the King. By 1874 he was on the staff of the newspaper for which he wrote sketches of street scenes, low life, criminality, waterfront activities and levee characters. Briefly published with a friend a short-lived weekly, Ye Giglampz. In 1875 joined the staff of the Cincinnati Commercial. During his stay in Cincinnati, became friendly with H. E. Krehbiel, pioneer ethnomusicologist who later became music critic for the New York Tribune. In 1874 Hearn entered into an illegal marriage with a woman of color, Mattie Foley, and found himself ostracized. The marriage was a disaster, and they were separated, Mattie Foley remarrying again, legally this time, in 1880. Hearn left Cincinnati for New Orleans in late 1877. Wrote a few more pieces for the Commercial from New Orleans. In June 1878, joined the staff of the New Orleans Item where he remained till he became literary editor of the Times-Democrat in late 1881. Wrote many sketches of New Orleans which he discovered under the guidance of his friend George Washington Cable (q.v.). Other New Orleans friends were Adrien Rouquette (q.v.), Grace King (q.v.), Rudolph Matas (q.v.) and Elizabeth Bisland (q.v.), his first biographer. Became interested in the creole dialect, collected creole songs and proverbs. Hearns sketches of New Orleans life and especially the French Quarter have earned him an enduring place among Louisiana writers. Did many translations of French writers, including One of Cleopatra's Nights by Theophile Gautier and stories by Guy de Maupassant, Emile Zola, and Pierre Loti. At the time of the 1884-1885 Worlds Industrial and Cotton Centennial Exposition in New Orleans, he was one of several contributors to the Historical Sketch Book and Guide to New Orleans (1885), other works include: Some Chinese Ghosts (1887); Chita: A Memory of Last Island (1889); Creole Sketches, ed. by Charles Woodward Hutson (1924); Editorials: New Orleans Journalistic Writings, ed. by Charles Woodward Hutson (1926). His complete works were published in 1922 by Houghton Mifflin as The Writings of Lafcadio Hearn. Died, Okubo, now in Tokyo, Japan, September 26, 1904. M.A. Source: Author's research.

HEARSEY, Henry James, journalist. Born near Thompson's Creek, West Feliciana Parish, La., November 21, 1840; son of James Price Hearsey and Caroline Generally. Education: private academies, Bayou Sara and St. Francisville; studied law under U. B. Phillips (q.v.). Civil War service: Wilkinson Rifles which became Company K, Sixteenth Mississippi Regiment Entered as private, April, 1861, rose to rank of major; served primarily in Virginia theater. Married, 1878, Martha Mary Morris, daughter of Episcopal priest in St. Francisvile, La. No children. Active in Democratic party; printer for 1898 Louisiana constitutional convention. A leading nineteenth-century newspaper editor in Louisiana and South. From secession crisis until his death, remained one of the key spokesmen of Southern Democratic extremism in sectional and racial matters. Began newspaper career before the Civil War, established the Feliciana Constitutionalist, 1860; moved to Mississippi to edit Woodville Republican, Wilkinson County. After war, revived the Shreveport News, 1870, before taking over East Texas Bulletin, Marshall, Tex. Became editor of the Shreveport Times, 1873, and heralded campaign against Negro suffrage in 1874. Removed to New Orleans to become co-editor of the New Orleans Democrat, but lost control of the paper to Edward A. Burke (q.v.), when Louisiana Lottery interests purchased the paper to silence his attacks against the state-sanctioned gambling combine. Began another paper, the New Orleans Daily States, 1880, which became the official journal of city government and the chief voice for the state's Bourbon Democrats and extreme anti-Negro sentiment. Probably a Presbyterian. Died, New Orleans, October 30, 1900; interred Metairie Cemetery, tomb of Association of Army of Tennessee. J.L. Sources: National Cyclopedia of American Biography (1900); William I. Hair, "Henry J. Hearsey and the Politics of Race," Louisiana History, XVII (1976); Henry Rightor, Standard History of New Orleans (1900); Obituaries: New Orleans Daily States, October 30, 1900; New Orleans Times-Democrat, November 1, 1900.

HEBERT, A. Otis, historian, archivist. Born, Abbeville, La., September 22, 1930; son of A. Otis Hébert, Sr., and Etta Babineaux. Education: Abbeville High School, 1948; Southwestern Louisiana Institute (now University of Southwestern Louisiana), B. A., cum laude, 1952; Louisiana State University, M. A., history, and M. Ed., 1958. Scholastic societies: Phi Kappa Phi, Phi Alpha Theta. Thesis: "History of Education in Colonial Louisiana." Military service: U. S. Army, Korean War, 1952-1954. After return from military service, taught in Vermilion Parish schools, 1954-1956. During graduate studies at LSU, extramural teaching in Louisiana and American history, Division of Continuing Education; visiting professor, Southeastern Louisiana College, Hammond, 1959; associate editor and editor, Louisiana History, 1960-1963. Assistant professor, Nicholls State University, Thibodaux, 1963-1966; part-time archivist, Roman Catholic Diocese of Baton Rouge, 1964-1966. Director of Louisiana Department of Archives and Records, 1966-1974; director of Center for Acadian Folklore and Culture, University of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette, 1974-1976. Married, August 7, 1965, Elsie Boone Stallworth, Baton Rouge, daughter of Oscar S. Boone and Iva Mae Crawford, Baton Rouge. Religious affiliation: Roman Catholic. Organizations: Founder of Society of Southwest Archivists, 1971; secretary-treasurer, Louisiana Historical Association, 1968-1976; member of Advisory Council, National Archives and Records Service. Other professional memberships included North Louisiana Historical Association, Southeast Historical Association, Attakapas Historical Association, St. Tammany Historical Association, Louisiana Folklore Society, Vermilion Historical Society. Listed in Who's Who in Louisiana, Outstanding Americans in the South, Who's Who in the South and Southwest, and History of Vermilion Parish, Louisiana. In addition to articles in professional historical and archival journals, other publications include: "Louisiana in the Civil War: A Chronology" (with T. Harry Williams); "Resources in the Louisiana Depositories for the Study of Spanish Activities in Louisiana," in John Francis McDermott, ed., The Spanish in the Mississippi Valley, 1762-1804; "The Calcasieu River," in Edwin Adams Davis, ed., The Rivers and Bayous of Louisiana; "Keeping Louisiana's Records," McNeese Review, XVIII (1967); "Louisiana," Oxford Encyclopedia. Died, Baton Rouge, October 9, 1976; interred Resthaven Cemetery. E.H. Sources: Louisiana History Newsletter, Vol. II, No. 6; History of Vermilion Parish, Louisiana (1983); Louisiana History, XVII (1976); Baton Rouge Sunday Advocate, October 10, 1976; A. Otis Hébert, Jr., family papers.

HEBERT, Felix Edward, journalist, congressman. Born, New Orleans, October 12, 1901; son of Felix Joseph Hébert of Terrebonne Parish, La., a streetcar motorman, and Lea Naquin of Houma, a former school teacher. Roman Catholic. Educated St. Joseph Parochial School, McDonogh High School (president of his class, manager of athletic teams, and winner of gold medals for elocution and debating), Tulane University (manager of the football team, sports editor of the school paper, and university debating champion), Tulane Law School and Tulane School of Journalism. Member of Delta Sigma Phi fraternity; national third vice-president, 1936-1939. Married Gladys F. Bofill, August 1, 1934. One daughter: Dawn Marie (b. 1936). Member: Metairie Country Club; Kiwanis Club; Executive Committee of Tulane Alumni Association; Young Men's Business Club, president, 1932, and honorary life member. A director of the Central Savings and Loan Association of New Orleans. Vice-President of Royal Broadcasting Corporation (WTIX). Board of directors of the Central Homestead Association. Reporter and assistant sports editor, New Orleans Times-Picayune, 1918-1923. Assistant sports editor, political reporter and columnist ("Periscope"), and then city editor, New Orleans States, 1923-1941; assisted in bringing Louisiana scandals (corruption in the administration of Gov. Richard W. Leche, [q.v.}) to light in 1939, for which the States was awarded the Sigma Delta Chi Courage in Journalism Award. Publicity director, Loyola University of the South, 1925-1928. Member of the Democratic party; political opponent of Huey Long (q.v.); became political associate of James A. Noe (q.v.), Leander Perez (q.v.), and Robert Maestri (q.v.); Dixiecrat in 1948; supported the Republican, David Treen, for Louisiana governorship in 1979. A conservative in national politics: supported states' rights; opposed big government; opposed civil rights legislation, arguing that it was impossible to force people to be good; wanted to fight to win in Viet Nam or get out. In 1940, was supported for election to Congress against the incumbent, J. 0. Fernandez (q.v.), by Sam Houston Jones (q.v.), the Regular Democratic Party, and the Noe independents. Member of the United States House of Representatives for the First District (Plaquemines Parish, St. Tammany Parish, St. Bernard Parish, and parts of the City of New Orleans), 1941-1977. Worked to solve defense housing problems caused by World War II; sponsored a bill to treat alcoholics as patients rather than criminals in the District of Columbia; on the House Un-American Activities Committee, viewed his role as attempting to give those called before the committee a fair chance to defend themselves; supported the Taft-Hartley Act; opposed the 1964 Civil Rights Act; supported the creation of a Jewish homeland; defended President Harry Truman's right to fire Gen. Douglas MacArthur as commander of United States armed forces in Korea; opposed Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara's plan to combine the National Guard and Army Reserve; voted for the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which he viewed as a declaration of war against North Viet Nam; remained a strong supporter of the Viet Nam War, yet supported the investigation of the My Lai massacre; succeeded in getting the Uniformed Services University of the Health Services established. Awards: George Washington Great American Award by the American Legion; Minuteman Hall of Fame Award, Man of the Year Award, and Purple Heart Award by the Reserve Officers Association; National Preparedness Award by the National Institute for Disaster Mobilization. Honorary Degree: LL. D., Loyola University, 1972. Publication: I Went, I Saw, I Heard, 1946. Vision increasingly impaired by cataracts, 1947-1969. Suffered a broken arm in 1975 and health deteriorated thereafter. Died, New Orleans, December 29, 1979; interred Lake Lawn Mausoleum. J.F.G. Sources: F. Edward Hdbert with John McMillan, "Last of the Titans": The Life and Times of Congressman F. Edward Hébert of Louisiana (1976); New Orleans Times-Picayune, December 30, 31, 1979; January 1, 1980; Anna Rath, ed., Current Biography Yearbook (1951); Eleanora W. Schoenebaum, ed., Political Profiles: The Nixon/Ford Years (1979); Jacques Cattell, ed., Who's Who in American Politics, 6th ed. (1977).

HEBERT, Henry P., newspaper publisher. Born, Bivouac Plantation, near Thibodaux, La., January 21, 1893; son of Eugene Hebert and Marie Erskine. Educated local French private schools. Married, June 27, 1916, Albion Davidson, of Houma, La., daughter of William A. Davidson and Odalie LeBlanc. Children: Henry P., Jr. (b. 1925), William E. (b. 1927). Engaged in commercial printing and publishing in Houma, Thibodaux, Morgan City, Crowley for Houma Courier, Crowley Daily Signal; established Sulphur Southwest Builder, 1933, Sulphur's first standard newspaper, published until 1950. Member: Catholic church; charter member, Sulphur Rotary Club and Association of Commerce. Served: Selective Service Board of Appeals, World War II. Died, Sulphur, La., January 4, 1962; interred Mimosa Pines Cemetery, Carlyss, La. G.S.P. Sources: Erbon W. Wise, Brimstone! The History of Sulphur, Louisiana, 1878-1980 (1981); Hebert family papers.

HEBERT, Julius Peter, postmaster, state representative. Born, Shell Island, La., June 16, 1884; son of Jules Hébert and Wilhelmina Kihioff. Education: private school, Morgan City, La.; attended Louisiana State University. Commissioned by President Woodrow Wilson as Morgan City postmaster, serving nine years, 1914-1923; elected, 1924, to represent St. Mary Parish in Louisiana legislature and re-elected, 1928; appointed first registrar of vital statistics in Morgan City, 1914; became manager of Morgan City Chamber of Commerce, 1927, concerned with navigation and flood-control projects. Married, 1907, Katherine Vinson, daughter of George Vinson and Rosa Amador. Children: Constance, Margaret, Wilhelmina, and Julius V. Active in Red Cross and other war work during World War I; Roman Catholic, Grand Knight of Morgan City Knights of Columbus; Exalted Ruler B.P.O.E. #1121. Died, Morgan City, March 23, 1932; interred Morgan City Cemetery. L.K.L. Source: Hébert Family Papers, Morgan City Archives.

HEBERT, Louis, soldier, journalist, educator. Born, Iberville Parish, March 13, 1820; son of Valerie Hebert and Marie Clarisse Boush. Education: private tutors; Jefferson College, St. James Parish; United States Military Academy, West Point, graduated, 1845, third in a class of forty-one. Acted as assistant engineer in the construction of Fort Livingston, La., 1845-1846. Resigned, February 15, 1846, and became a planter in Iberville Parish. Served as an officer in the Louisiana militia, 1847-1861. State senator, 1853-1855. Chief engineer for the state of Louisiana, 1855-1859. Member, Board of Public Works, 1860-1861. Elected colonel, Third Louisiana Infantry Regiment, May 17, 1861. Led his regiment at the Battle of Wilson's Creek, Mo., August 10, 1861. Commanded a brigade at the Battle of Elkhorn Tavern, Ark., and captured there, March 7, 1862. Led a brigade of Gen. Sterling Price's army at the battles of luka and Corinth, Miss., September 19, and October 3-4, 1862. Defended Snyder's Bluff near Vicksburg during the winter and spring of 1862-1863. Commanded a brigade during the siege of Vicksburg and captured July 4, 1863. Assigned to command the heavy artillery in the Cape Fear, N. C., area. Chief engineer, Department of North Carolina, until the end of the war. After the Civil War he was a newspaperman and teacher in Iberville and St. Martin parishes. Died, St. Martin Parish, January 7, 1901; interred Breaux Bridge. A.W.B. Sources: Ezra J. Warner, Generals in Gray (1959); Willie H. Tunnard, A Southern Record: The Story of the Third Louisiana Infantry (1966); Mark M. Boatner III, The Civil War Dictionary (1959); Clement A. Evans, Confederate Military History, 13 vols. (1899).

HEBERT, Paul Octave, governor. Born, Acadia Plantation, Iberville Parish, La., December 12, 1818; son of Paul Gaston Hebert and Mary Eugenis Hamilton. Education: at home; Jefferson College, St. James Parish, graduated head of his class of 1836; West Point, 1836-1840, graduated head of his class. Assistant professor of engineering until 1842 when appointed engineer in construction of western passes to port of New Orleans. That year married (1) Cora Wills Vaughn. Five children. Resigned from the Army in 1845, and appointed civil engineer for the state of Louisiana. Resigned in 1847 and commissioned aide-de-camp to Gov. Isaac Johnson (q.v.), same year appointed lieutenant colonel of 14th Regiment of U. S. Infantry. Participated all major battles of the war with Mexico. Promoted on the field to brevet rank of colonel by Gen. Winfield Scott (q.v.). Honorably discharged at New Orleans, July 25, 1848. Returned home near Bayou Goula, Iberville Parish, presented sword with a jeweled hilt by the citizens. Ran, as a Democrat, for state senate in 1849 and lost by nine votes. Gov. Joseph Walker (q.v.) appointed him delegate to London Industrial Exhibition in 1851. Elected delegate to constitutional convention of 1852. Opposed total population basis for apportioning seats to legislature. Did not vote for adoption. 1852 nominated by Democrats and won election as governor of Louisiana. Ill on inauguration day and special committee administered oath at his home. Had names of absent legislators published. Supported railroad construction, establishing ferries, improving navigable streams, and land reclamation. Gave strongest support to public education, supported establishment of Louisiana State University, helped establish a public library in the state house, and reorganized the state militia. Vetoed a bill to re-create the penitentiary lease system. Completion of term as governor returned to plantation, raised race horses, and was president of the Metairie Jockey Club. Appointed to military board to prepare defenses of Louisiana. Commissioned brigadier general in Confederate Army, and placed in command of Louisiana. Commanded defenses of Texas, then a sub-district in North Louisiana. Engaged in Battle of Milliken's Bend, La., June, 1863. 1864 took command of eastern sub-district of Texas, remained until the fall of the Confederacy. Returned to plantation Home Place. Became a Liberal Republican in 1872. U. S. Grant gave him several appointments to engineering boards. After death of first wife, married (2) Penelope Lynch Adams Andrews. Six children. Stricken with paralysis, 1879; died, August 29, 1880. Interred Catholic graveyard, Bayou Goula, La. W.H.A. Sources: Albert Leonce Dupont, "The Career of Paul Octave Hebert, Governor of Louisiana, 1853-1856," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XXXI (1948); Dictionary of American Biography, VIII (1946).

HEBERT, Percy D., law enforcement official. Born, Lions, St. John Parish, La., July 13, 1907. Education: Leon Godchaux High School, graduated 1926. Employed in Louisiana and Cuban sugar industries. Joined Louisiana State Police, 1934; resigned, 1940, to run for sheriff, St. John Parish; elected. Took office, August 3, 1941, Louisiana's youngest sheriff. Served as sheriff until death. Member: National Sheriff's Association, Louisiana Sheriffs Association, Southeast Louisiana Law Enforcement Association, and Louisiana Juvenile Officers Association. Married, 1935, Leona Montz. One daughter: Sheila. Died, February 9, 1974; interred St. Peter's Cemetery, Reserve, La. G.R.C. Source: Laplace, La., L'Observateur, February 14, 1974.

HECHT, Rudolf, banker, businessman, civic leader. Born, Ansbach, Germany, June 3, 1885; early education in Germany, came to U. S. as a young man to study American banking methods; became U. S. citizen. Education: University of Chicago; 1906 graduated from American Institute of Banking; honorary doctorate in Commercial Science, 1929, Oglethorpe University. Resident of New Orleans after 1906. Married Lynne Watkins. Children: Mrs. F. Evans Farwell, Mrs. Ashel W. Cooper, Jr. Appointed assistant foreign exchange manager of Hibernia Bank and Trust Co. of New Orleans, 1906; president, Hibernia Bank, 1918; company founder and chairman of the board of the Mississippi Shipping Co., Inc. (Delta Line); chairman, executive committee, International Trade Mart; head, R. S. Hecht and Company Investment Bankers; national president, American Institute of Banking, 1918; president, Board of Port Commissioners, 1921-1928; elected president of American Bankers Association, 1934; vice-president, Southern Council of International Relations; member, advisory committee Export-Import Bank. Died, New Orleans, January 18, 1956; interred Live Oak Cemetery, Pass Christian, Miss. C.A.D. Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune, January 19, 1956; New Orleans States, obituary, January 19, 1956.

HEINEN, Jackson Henry, attorney, civic leader, humanitarian. Born near Waterloo, Iowa, May 7, 1867; son of Henry and Annie Block Heinen. Education: local schools; graduated Tilford Academy. Passed bar exam in Iowa, later Louisiana. Justice of peace, Iowa Falls. Married Eda Lane, September 21, 1891, in Iowa Falls. Children: son born and died 1901; Frances, died as young woman. Removed to Jennings 1901 to establish First National Bank, became vice-president. Parish representative, 1916-1928. Delegate state constitutional convention, 1921. Member, parish school board. Judge of city court, two years. Notary and attorney for Jennings Federal Savings and Loan. Member, board of directors, Calcasieu National Bank. Worked up first set of abstract titles in early years of Jefferson Davis Parish. Dean of parish bar upon retirement in 1946. Active with Louisiana Children's Home in Jennings. Charter member, Rotary Club; member, Masonic, Elks and Knights of Pythias lodges. Jennings Male Chorus. Deacon, Congregational church (later Presbyterian). Died, Jennings, December 31, 1946. Interred Greenwood Cemetery. M.P.* Sources: Jeff Davis Parish News, September 5, 1946; obituary, December 31, 1946.

HELINSKI, James J., clergyman, missionary. Born, Wysoka, Poland, August 29, 1872; son of Jacob and Helen Helinski. Educated in Poland. Emigrated to the United States in 1888; joined the Congregation of the Missions (Vincentians) at Perryville, Mo., and entered the seminary there, where he was ordained a Roman Catholic priest, December 24, 1898. Assigned, 1900, to St. Stephen's Church, New Orleans, and in 1915 as assistant pastor to St. Joseph Church, New Orleans. Served as chaplain of Hotel Dieu Hospital and at old parish prison. As prison chaplain he accompanied many prisoners to the gallows and became known as "the hanging priest." Revolted by the cruelty of hanging he was instrumental in having the state of Louisiana change the law to execution by electric chair. Died, New Orleans, October 11, 1953; interred St. Vincent Cemetery. L.S. Sources: Obituary, Catholic Action of the South (weekly of the Archdiocese of New Orleans), October 15, 1953; obituary, New Orleans Times-Picayune. October 12, 1953; Stefan Nestorowicz, Travel Notes (translation of Notatki z Prodrózy by Marion Moore Coleman).

HELlS, William G., businessman. Born, Tropea, Greece, October 17, 1886. Immigrated to United States, 1904. Married Bessie Felch, December 22, 1908. Children: one son, three daughters. Started as a pioneer oil prospector in California and later in Oklahoma. Removed to New Orleans, La., 1930; obtained oil leases on state-owned bayou bottom lands; organized the Canal and the Lincoln Oil companies; developed large oil fields in partnership with New Orleans mayor Robert Maestri (q.v.); became naturalized American citizen, August 20, 1938; granted exclusive drilling rights for oil exploration in Greece; activity curtailed by outbreak of World War II; donated drilling equipment valued at one million dollars to Greek government. A stockholder in the New Orleans Fairgrounds racetrack; a breeder of race horses; bought and developed a thoroughbred farm in New Jersey and a racetrack in California. Member, Democratic party, Greek Orthodox Church, Greek War Relief Association, American Hellenic Educational and Progressive Association, and Pan-Arcadian Society; given the Order of King George I, the highest decoration of Greece, December 1947; was Royal Greek consul in New Orleans. Died, Baltimore, Md., July 25, 1950; interred Metairie Cemetery, New Orleans. J.B.C. Sources: New York Times, obituary, July 25, 1950; New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, July 25-26, 1950.

HELLER, James G., rabbi, composer. Born, New Orleans, January 4, 1892; son of Rabbi Maximillian Heller (q.v.) and Ida Annie Marks. Education: New Orleans public schools; Tulane University, B.A., 1912. Studied piano with Corinne Mayer and organ with 0. C. Bodemuller; University of Cincinnati, M.A., 1914. Studied at the Hebrew Union College; ordained rabbi, 1916. Awarded a doctorate in Music by the Cincinnati Conservatory, 1934. Assistant rabbi in Philadelphia, 1916-1919; chaplain in France, 1918-1919; rabbi, Little Rock, Ark., 1919-1920; rabbi, Isaac M. Wise Temple, Cincinnati, 1921 to his death. Wrote program notes for the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra; taught Musicology, Cincinnati Conservatory. Composed symphonic works, including Four Sketches Dedicated to Eugene Goossens, a violin sonata, a piano duo, and Jewish services. His Four Aquatints for String Quartet, awarded prize by the League for the Publication of American Music, 1929. Died, Cincinnati, December 29, 1971. M.A. Sources: Louis Panzeri, Louisiana Composers (1972); Nicolas Slonimsky, Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians (1984).

HELLER, Maximillian
, rabbi, religious leader. Born, Prague, Bohemia, January 1, 1860; son of Seligman Heller and Mathilde Kassowitz Heller. Received a thorough scholastic education in the European tradition at Neustradter Gymnasium in native city. Established his reputation as a linguist. Arrived in U. S. in early manhood, completed a program for a Bachelor of Letters in 1882 from McMicken University. Entered simultaneously the Hebrew Union College for rabbinical studies (completed in 1884) and the University of Cincinnati to receive a Master of Letters degree, 1884. Became minister to Zion Congregation of Chicago upon his graduation. Two years later, removed to Houston, Tex., as rabbi of the Bethel Congregation. With the death, on June 11, 1886, of Rabbi James Koppel Gutheim of Temple Sinai, in New Orleans, was one of several candidates considered as a replacement. Addressed the congregation on February 10, 1887. Election recommended and took place on February 13th. In 1889, he married Ida Annie Marks (1865-1949). Children: Isaac, a New Orleans attorney, Rabbi James G. Heller (q.v.), Mrs. George Cohen of New York, and Cecile, wife of Dr. Edward Emanuel Lasker. Devoted one Sabbath every four weeks in circuit work in Louisiana and Mississippi. Edited the Jewish Ledger (1896-1897), was a leader-writer of the American Israelite (1902-1914), and contributed a column of "Jewish Current Events" to B'nai B'rith News. Contributed liberally to many other Jewish and American periodicals of learning and religion. Delivered, 1921, a course in Jewish literature. In 1913-1914, he presented lectures on Jewish race and art, and prepared a number of young men for admission to the Hebrew Union College. Appointed professor, 1912, of Hebrew and Hebrew Literature at Tulane University. President of the Central Conference of American Rabbis, and the Hebrew Union College Alumni Association. Member of the American Jewish Historical Society, the American Oriental Society, the Round Table and the Oakland Country Club. Retired, 1927, from Temple Sinai after forty years of service, with title of rabbi emeritus. Died, March 30, 1929. R.L. Sources: "In Memoriam—Dr. Max Heller," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XII (1929); Max Heller, comp., Jubilee Souvenir of Temple Sinai, 1872-1922 (1922); Bertram W. Korn, The Early Jews of New Orleans (1969); The Israelites of Louisiana (n.d.).

HELLMAN, Lillian
, playwright, screenwriter. Born, New Orleans, June 20, 1905; only child of Julia Newhouse and Max Bernard Heliman. Lived in New Orleans for six years before moving to New York City with parents. For the next ten years divided her time between the two cities, returning for long visits with her aunts in New Orleans. Education: attended schools in both cities, graduating from Wadleigh High School in New York City; was a student at New York University, 1922-1924; studied journalism at Columbia University; received an honorary master of arts degree from Tufts University, 1950. Worked as a manuscript reader and book reviewer, wrote short stories and articles, and read scripts for a movie studio, 1925-1932. Married Arthur Kober December 30, 1925; divorced in 1932; a long and close relationship with mystery writer Dashiell Haminett lasted until his death in 1960. Her play, The Children's Hour, produced on Broadway in 1934, was adapted by her into the film, These Three, in 1936. Toured Europe in 1936 and made strong denunciations of facism upon her return to the United States. Another play, The Little Foxes, premiered on Broadway in 1939; her greatest success in 1941 was Watch on the Rhine which won the New York Drama Critics Circle Award; she adapted that play for the screen in 1943. After a 1945 trip to the Soviet Union Collier's published her article on Russian life and gallantry. Directed the Broadway production of her play, Another Part of the Forest, in 1946; adapted other author's works for the stage in the late '40s and early '50s. The Autumn Garden, her play about middle age, opened on Broadway in March 1951. Because of her interest in left-wing causes she was invited to testify before the House Un-American Activities Committee in 1952; denied she was a member of the Communist Party and refused to testify about political activities of her associates saying (in a letter to the committee) "I cannot and will not cut my conscience to fit this year's fashion"; was blacklisted by the theater industry from 1948 to 1956; helped found, with friend Hannah Weinstein, the Committee for Public Justice. Her only play set in New Orleans Toys in the Attic, premiered on Broadway in 1960 and won the New York Drama Critics Circle Award; wrote eight original dramas and four adaptations before abandoning the stage in the early '60s. The Academy of Arts and Letters awarded her the Gold Medal in 1964 for distinguished achievement in the theater; taught writing classes at Harvard, Yale, and the City University of New York. Edited the letters of Chekhov and the Hammett stories; worked on her memoirs, publishing An Unfinished Woman in 1969 for which she won the 1970 National Book Award; Scoundrel Time, published in 1976, was about her political activities; a chapter from her 1974 memoir, Pentimento, was made into the award-winning movie, Julia. The South figured prominently in her work; in a 1977 lecture in New Orleans she commented, "one reason why Southern writing is distinctive is that it is the only place in America where people have real roots, old roots, and are in touch with the lessons of history". Died, Martha's Vineyard, Mass., July 1, 1984; interred Abel's Hill Cemetery. J.B.C. Sources: Current Biography (1960); New York Times, obituary, July 1, 1984; New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, July 1, 1984.

HENDERSON, Mamie Jamison, civic leader. Born, Tuscaloosa, Ala.; daughter of J. M. Jamison and S. L. Nuckols. President of Hypatia Club. Started the custom of awarding a medal each year to the high school student who made the highest grades in English. She also inaugurated the policy of giving a loving cup to the best debater at Centenary College. While president of the United Daughters of the Confederacy, she had an active part in placing markers on soldiers' graves. She was a prominent figure in the councils of the Louisiana State Federation of Women's Clubs. Married, William Kennon Henderson, November 27, 1879. Three children, one of whom was William Kennon Henderson, Jr. (q.v.). P.L.M. Source: Lilla McLure and J. Ed Howe, History of Shreveport and Shreveport Builders (1937).

HENDERSON, Raymond
, clergyman, reformer. Born in Pennsylvania, ca. 1805. Removed to New Orleans, 1835; became pastor of the city's French Evangelical Protestant Church (L'Eglise Protestante Français), an amorphous congregation of some fifty Calvinists and Lutherans which had tied itself to the local Episcopal administration around 1830. Embroiled Episcopalians in their first major doctrinal debate in which he tried, unsuccessfully, to replace Low Church liberality with High Church decorum. After his departure shortly thereafter, the French-speaking affiliation never recovered, and gradually dispersed in the 1850s. T.F.R. Source: Timothy F. Reilly, "Religious Leaders and Social Criticism in New Orleans, 1800-1861" (Ph. D. dissertation, University of Missouri at Columbia, 1972).

HENDERSON, Stephen, merchant, planter. Born, Dunblane, Perthshire, Scotland, 1775, of a poor family. Immigrated to New Orleans ca. 1800. By 1810 headed household on Bienville Street which included five slaves. An astute businessman. As his fortune grew became known as "Monsieur Croesus," "the Scottish Marvel" and "Old Baggy Pantaloons." By 1825 owned a country home in White Sulphur Springs, Va., a cotton press in New Orleans, three large plantations valued at over $400,000 (Elm Park and Forest plantations in West Feliciana Parish and Mount Houmas in Ascension Parish) and an elegant mansion at #39 Canal Street (present site of United States Customs House). Married Zelia Destréhan (who was half his age) 1825 after purchasing her parents' plantation (Destréhan) on the Mississippi River in St. Charles Parish (she died 1830). Henderson left a unique will which states: "My greatest object is to do the greatest quantity of good, and to the greatest number of persons and to the poorest people." He left land to the firemen of New Orleans which was sold; proceeds used to buy Cypress Grove Cemetery in 1840. Also left money to numerous churches, asylums, Charity Hospital and the poor of Orleans Parish. The most unusual provisions of his will concerned his slaves. Set up an elaborate scheme that some (chosen by lots) would be sent back to Africa and some would remain at Destréhan, which was to be turned into "an industrial emporium" (but the plantation was sold to his wife's brother-in-law, Pierre Rost [q.v.]); the slaves were to be taught to make "negro cloth" and "negro shoes." His will remained in litigation up to and following the Civil War. None of the provisions of the will seem to have been followed except the bequest to the firemen; unknown what happened to his fortune. Died, March 10, 1838. Interred next to wife, St. Charles Borromeo (Red Church) Cemetery, St. Charles Parish. J.K.S. Sources: Heirs of Henderson v. The Executives of Henderson, 5 La. Ann. 441 #5617, New Orleans, January 1844-1850; Census of 1810; New Orleans Commercial Bulletin, March 12, 1838; Francis P. Burns, "Stephen Henderson," New Orleans Times-Picayune Dixie Roto, September 24, 1950; William W. Howe, Municipal History of New Orleans (1888; reprinted., 1973); Leonard Huber and Guy F. Bernard, To Glorious Immortality (1961); Harnett Kane, Plantation Parade (1945); John Smith Kendall, History of New Orleans (1922); Thomas O'Connor, History of the Fire Department of New Orleans (1895).

HENDERSON, William Kennon
, businessman. Born, Bastrop, La., August 6, 1880; son of William Kennon Henderson, Sr., and Mamie Jamison. Parents removed to Jefferson, Tex., where he was educated; graduated from St. Edwards College, Austin, Texas. Family removed, 1896, to Shreveport. After college he established Henderson Garage and sold Ford automobiles. Upon death of father, 1918, assumed management of the Henderson Iron Works and Supply Company, the largest company of its kind south of St. Louis. Acquired, 1922, interest in radio station WGAQ and upon obtaining full ownership in 1925 changed its call letters to KWKH after his own initials. Operating from his estate "Kennonwood," north of Shreveport, he established a 50,000-watt, clear-channel station and challenged WWL of New Orleans and the Federal Communications Commissions right to regulate his station's power. He and his station became spokesmen for the political career of Huey Long (q.v.) and he challenged the power of chain-store monopolies. In 1933 he sold the station. Married, 1908, Josie Carter, daughter of Leon M. Carter of Shreveport. Children: Kennon and William. Died, Shreveport, May 28, 1945. A.S.T. Sources: Lilian Hall, "A History of Programming KWKH, 1920-1950" (Ph. D. dissertation, LSU, 1959); Maude Hearn-O'Pry, Chronicles of Shreveport (1928); Lilla McLure and J. Ed Howe, History of Shreveport and Shreveport Builders (1937); C. Joseph Pusateri, "The Stormy Career of a Radio Maverick, W. K. Henderson of KWKII," Louisiana Studies, XV (Winter, 1976); J. Ed Howe, Shreveport Men and Women Builders (1931); "History of KWKH," Shreveport Times, January 29, 1978.

HENNEN, Alfred, Presbyterian church leader, attorney, businessman. Born, Elk Ridge, Md., October 17, 1786. Graduated from Yale, 1806. Settled in New Orleans, 1809, where he became an early organizer of both the Episcopal and Presbyterian churches while he attained celebrity status at the Louisiana bar. He also accumulated the largest private library in the Old Southwest in the areas of literature and law. Hennen was offered a seat on the bench several times, but always refused. He was a benefactor to Presbyterian clergymen Sylvester Lamed (q.v.) and Theodore Clapp (q.v.); broke with latter over his liberal theological views. As an elder of the First Presbyterian Church, Hennen played a key role in salvaging Calvinist precepts after Clapp was expelled (Clapp later became a Unitarian). In 1853, Hennen was not only recognized as a conservative pillar of the city's rejuvenated Presbyterian community, but also as the "oldest member of the [Louisiana] bar," and as a public-spirited social and business leader. For several years before his death, he was professor of Common and Constitutional Law in the University of Louisiana (now Tulane University). Died January 19, 1870. T.F.R. Sources: Louis Voss, ed., Presbyterianism in New Orleans and Adjacent Points; Its Semi-Centennial Held in 1873, Seventy-fifth Anniversary of the Organization of the New Orleans Presbytery, 1930 (1931); James Grant Wilson and John Fiske, eds., Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography (1900).

HENNEPIN, Louis
, author, explorer. Born, Ath, Belgium, April 7, 1640; son of Gaspard Hennepin and Robertine Lelup. Recollet friar: entered order at Bethune, France; later missionary to the Netherlands, 1673; sailed to Quebec as missionary, 1675; itinerant missionary, New France, 1675-1678; chaplain to La Salle's employees, 1678-1679; accompanied Michel Accault to Upper Mississippi Valley; captured and taken prisoner by Sioux tribe, 1680; rescued by Duluth; returned to France, 1682; entered cloister at St. Germain-en-Laye, 1682; guardian of Recollets at Renti, France, 1683-1686; confessor of Recollet nuns at Gosselies, Flanders, 1686-1691; inmate at a Recollet convent at Antwerp, 1696; left convent, 1696 and sought protection of King William III of England at Amsterdam; published two books at Utrecht urging England to colonize Mississippi Valley, 1697; inmate at a Recollet convent at Rome, 1701. Date and place of death unknown. Publications: Description de la Louisiane (1683); Nouvelle découverte d'un très grand pays, situé dans l'Amérique (1697); Nouveau Voyage d'un païs plus grand que I'Europe (1697). C.A.B. Sources: Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607-1896 (1967); Louis Hennepin, A New Discovery of a Vast Country in America, ed. by Reuben Gold Thwaites 2 vols. (1903); Jean Delanglez, Hennepin's Description of Louisiana: A Critical Essay (1941).

HENNESSY, David C.
, law enforcement official. Born, New Orleans, 1860; son of D. C. Hennessey, New Orleans police detective. Education: local schools. Career: messenger for the superintendent of police; aide and detective, 1877-1881; superintendent of bank detectives and later general superintendent; chief of police for the city of New Orleans, 1888; superintendent of police, 1888-1890. Unmarried. Assassinated on October 16, 1890, by suspected mafia agents. Interred Metairie Cemetery, New Orleans. M.L.K. Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, January 25, 1937; New Orleans Daily States, obituary, October 16, 1890; New Orleans Times-Democrat, obituary, October 18, 1890.

HENNING, John Lovejoy
, mining engineer, inventor. Born, Sulphur, La., July 7, 1879; son of John Thomas Henning (q.v.) and Catherine Perkins. Education: local schools. Married, 1910, Josephine Halton, of San Antonio, Tex., daughter of Judge Edmund Halton and Florence Teel. Children: John L. (b. 1917), Glory L. (b. 1919), Jolan (b. 1921). Telegrapher, Beaumont, Tex., Lake Charles, La.; built Spindletop skimming plant, Beaumont, Tex., 1897; removed to Sulphur Mine, 1899, general manager of Union Sulphur Co., 1899-1919; official, Brimstone Ry. and Canal Co.; invented rollerbit (Hughes roller bit). Removed to Lake Charles, La., 1919, civil mining engineer consultant; donated land for Lake Charles channel, Calcasieu River. Active in Democratic party. Member: Methodist church; Louisiana Historical Society; charter member Lake Charles Rotary Club; Masonic Lodge; board member, Boy Scouts and American Red Cross; director, Calcasieu National Bank. Died, San Antonio, Tex., May 20, 1945; interred, Henning Cemetery, Ross Bluff, south of Sulphur. G.S.P. Sources: William Haynes, Brimstone! The Stone That Burns (1959); Erbon W. Wise, Brimstone! The History of Sulphur, Louisiana, 1878-1980 (1981); Sulphur Southwest Builder, obituary, May 25, 1945; Henning family papers.

HENNING, John Thomas, businessman. Born, Montgomery, Ala., September 25, 1850; son of Rev. John Henning and Samantha Lovejoy. Educated Alabama schools. Migrated to British Honduras, 1865, then to Jefferson, Tex.; homesteaded at Rose Bluff on Calcasieu River, south of Sulphur, 1872; located in Sulphur, 1885. Married (1), January 8, 1875, Catherine Perkins, daughter of Eli Perkins (q.v.), pioneer lumberman, cattleman, and Anna Broussard, daughter of Joseph A. Broussard, Acadian exile, leader in early development of southwestern Louisiana. Children: Eli A. (b. 1876), John Lovejoy (q.v.). Married (2), April 1890, Mary A. Smith, of Orange, Tex. One child: William Thomas (q.v.). Built one of the first houses in Sulphur; operated boarding house, warehouse, transfer company carrying first oil from Sulphur Mines to railroad; postmaster, 1886-1889, 1895-1901; ticket agent, express agent, Southern Pacific Railroad; mercantile store, 1893; built first school house; active in oil business, drilling one of first wells in Edgerly, La.; operated rice and cattle farms. Member: Methodist church, instrumental in building first church, 1885, and two subsequent ones during lifetime, recording steward fifty years. Henning Memorial United Methodist Church named for subject. Died, Sulphur, September 3, 1934; interred Henning Cemetery, Rose Bluff, south of Sulphur. G.S.P. Sources: Erbon W. Wise, Brimstone! The History of Sulphur, Louisiana, 1878-1980 (1981); Shoulders of Giants: The History of Henning Memorial United Methodist Church; Henning family papers.

HENNING, William Thomas
, businessman. Born, Sulphur, La., September 11, 1893; son of John Thomas Henning (q.v.) and Mary A. Smith. Education: Sulphur and Orange, Tex., schools, Southwestern Louisiana Institute (now University of Southwestern Louisiana), Lafayette, La. Married, 1912, Evelyn Mary Chevis. Children: John T. (b. 1913), William L. (b. 1922). Active in Democratic party; charter member Calcasieu Parish Jury Commission; member first board of aldermen, 1916-1920; member, one-term president, Calcasieu Parish School Board. Member, president, Sulphur Chamber of Commerce; charter member, officer, Louisiana Telephone Association; Draft Appeal Board president, 1941; founder, president, Cameron Telephone Co., 1928. Member: Methodist church, official board, president, board of trustees; Sulphur Masonic Lodge No. 424 F and AM. W. T. Henning Elementary School named for subject. Died, Sulphur, May 29, 1952; interred Henning Cemetery, Rose Bluff, south of Sulphur. G.S.P. Sources: Erbon W. Wise, Brimstone! The History of Sulphur, Louisiana, 1878-1980 (1981); Henning family papers.

HENRY, Carmelite (Camnie) Garrett
, mistress of Melrose Plantation. Born, Scattery Plantation, Ascension Parish, La., January 14, 1871; daughter of Stephen Garrett and Leudivine Carmelite Erwin. Education: local schools and Louisiana Normal School (now Northwestern State University). Married, January 11, 1894, John Hampton Henry (d. 1918), son of Joseph C. Henry. Children: Stephen, Isaac Irwin, John Hampton, Jr., Payne, Joseph, Daniel, Robert and Carmelite. In 1884 Joseph Henry acquired Yucca Plantation and changed its name to Melrose, the Scottish battle site later incorporated into Sir Walter Scott's estate. In 1899, John Hampton Henry and family moved to Melrose Plantation, where subject spent a lifetime in preserving such well-known buildings as the Yucca, Africa, Ghana and the Big House. Also revived interest in local crafts, and established a collection of local history. A friend of Caroline Dormon (q.v.), the two collaborated on replanting and extending the gardens. Clementine Hunter (q.v.) began painting at Melrose. Invited writers to work at Melrose, including Rachel Field, Erskine Caldwell, Roark Bradford (q.v.), Alberta Kinsey, and Lyle Saxon (q.v.). Died, Melrose Plantation, November 17, 1948; interred American Cemetery, Natchitoches, La. D.H. Sources: Diane Moore, Their Adventurous Will: Profiles of Memorable Louisiana Women (1984); Ara Williams, "Cammie Henry," in Four Women of Cane River; membership application for Daughters of the American Revolution; Cammie Garrett Collection, Cammie Garret Archives, Northwestern Louisiana State University.

HENRY, Clarence "Chink", labor leader. Born, New Orleans, 1910. Graduated from Marigny School. Began working on the waterfront at seventeen. Married Doris Bryant. Children: Bryant, Eileen, Victor, Clarence, Jr., Sterling, Wilie, Philip, and Elodie. In 1948 appointed executive vice-president of International Longshoremen's Association's Local 1419, one of the largest black labor organizations in the country. In 1954 elected president of Local 1419. Won all subsequent presidential elections until his death. Served as international vice-president of the International Longshoremen's Association (ILA), member, executive board of the South Atlantic and Gulf Coast District of the ILA, the ILA's Pension, Welfare, Vacation, and Holiday Fund, the Louisiana State AFL-CIO, the AFL-CIO's Commission on Political Education, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, the Greater New Orleans AFL-CIO, and Total Community Action. Member of the Louisiana State Commission on Human Relations, and the advisory committee of the Young Men's Christian Association. President, Crescent City Independent Voters' League. In November, 1972, first black appointed by Mayor Moon Landrieu to the Domed Stadium Commission. Member: 33nd Degree Mason, Prince Hall affiliation; National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; Frontiers International; Original Illinois Club. Died, New Orleans, May 1, 1974. B.C.* Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune, May 2, 1974; obituary, May 3, 1974; Dave Well and Jim Stodder, "Short History of New Orleans Dockworkers," Radical America , January-February, 1976.

HERMINE, see ELDER, Susan Blanchard

HERO, Andrew, soldier, attorney, politician. Born, New Orleans, October 29, 1839. Educated in New Orleans. Civil War service: corporal, Third Company, Washington Artillery, May 26, 1861; promoted to rank of sergeant, November 1861; second lieutenant, May 18, 1862; first lieutenant, August 23, 1862; captain, February 17, 1864. Notary in New Orleans after the war. Married Ottie R. Pugh. Children. Admitted to the bar and practiced law. Republican nominee for Congress in 1886 and for lieutenant governor in 1888. Appointed assistant treasurer at New Orleans, 1890; served until 1894. Major in Washington Artillery, Louisiana National Guard, 1882-1893. Elks; Thirty-third Degree Mason. A.W.B. Sources: Clement A. Evans, ed., Confederate Military History, 11 vols (1899); John S. Kendall, History of New Orleans, 3 vols. (1922), Vol. III; Napier Bartlett, Military Record of Louisiana (reprinted., 1964).

HERRON, Francis Jay, soldier, attorney, politician, financier. Born, Pittsburgh, Pa., February 17, 1837. Education: Western University of Pennsylvania, graduated 1853. Removed to Dubuque, Iowa, ca. 1856, engaged in mercantile pursuits. Civil War service: Organized and commanded Governor's Grays Company of First Iowa Regiment, 1861; fought in battles of Dug Springs, Ozark and Wilson's Creek; promoted from captain to lieutenant-colonel, Ninth Iowa Regiment, September 1861; regimental commander in campaigns in Missouri, Arkansas and Indian Territory; wounded, taken prisoner, Battle of Pea Ridge, Ark.; exchanged; distinguished bravery medal; commissioned brigadier general of volunteers, July 29, 1862; commander, Army of the Frontier, Battle of Prairie Grove, Ark.; promoted to rank of major general of volunteers, November 1862; captured Van Buren, Ark.; commanded left wing of investing forces at Vicksburg, Miss.; commanded left wing of army/navy expedition against Yazoo City, Miss.; commanded XIII Army Corps on Texas coast until assigned to command Northern Louisiana division during General Banks' Red River campaign; negotiated, May 1865, and received, June 1865, formal surrender of Trans-Mississippi army and Confederate forces west of Mississippi River. Appointed commissioner to negotiate Indian treaties, July, 1865. Commanded District of Northern Louisiana, 1865; visited New Orleans, July 5, 1865, accompanied by staff; resigned appointments, August 1865. Returned to New Orleans as commission agent, October 1865; remained in New Orleans approximately ten years; also practiced law. Political career: U. S. Marshal, District of Louisiana, 1867-1869; secretary of state, 1871-1873; auditor of the state under Kellogg; recorder for State Mortgage Office, 1874; mortgage recorder, 1875; Recorder of Mortgages, Parish of Orleans, 1876; member, School Board of New Orleans, one term; returned North, ca. 1876; practiced law in New York, N. Y.; also financed Southern and Western enterprises. Died, January 8, 1902, New York. P.M. Sources: Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, (1887); New Orleans City Directory, 1871-1876; New Orleans Times-Democrat, January 11, 1902; New Orleans Daily True Delta, July 7, 1865; October 5, 1865; James Calhoun, ed., Louisiana Almanac, 1984-85 (1984).

HERRON, Frank J.
, sign and banner painter, grocer, bartender. Born, ca. 1840 in Mexico of U. S. citizens. Married (1) Mary Angelique (ca. 1847-1877). Married (2) Flora A., a boardinghouse owner, before 1881. Civil War service: Army of Tennessee. Member: Camp No. 2, Army of Tennessee, United Confederate Veterans, Louisiana Division. Created banner featured by Louisiana Division, UCV, at Memphis reunion, September 11, 1900. Resident of New Orleans (1863-1893, 1902). P.M. Sources: The Historic New Orleans Collection cemetery survey; The Historic New Orleans Collection, Encyclopaedia of New Orleans Artists, 1718-1918 (1987); U. S. Manuscript Census, Louisiana, 1870; New Orleans City Directory, 1868-1902; Louisiana Division, U.C.V., Roster of Camps (1892).

HEVIA, see EVIA

HEYMANN, Maurice
, businessman, philanthropist. Born in the French Quarter of New Orleans, August 17, 1885, son of Henry Heymann, a Polish immigrant (born Leo Kopcwiski) and Caroline Rosenthal, a native of France. Left school in the sixth grade to begin earning a living. Sold candy on the old Pontchartrain Railroad, traded furs in St. Bernard Parish, and operated a movie theater and a dime store in Rayne. In Lafayette, founded in 1916 what is now Heymann's Department Store and Heymann Food Store with the motto, "Watch Us Grow". In 1933 received the first Civic Cup Award presented by the Young Men's Business Club. Active in many civic and philanthropic ventures: Started the Doll and Toy Fund for area children; spearheaded a drive to build a stadium for the University of Southwestern Louisiana; instrumental in acquiring additional land for the expansion of the University; gave funding and land for the construction and operation of the Holy Rosary Institute (today a historical landmark), Immaculata Minor Seminary, the Lafayette Municipal Auditorium, the Art Center for Southwestern Louisiana, and Lafayette General Hospital. Established the Heymann Oil Center, a major center for the petroleum industry which was dedicated on October 7, 1953. The Louisiana Gulf Coast Oil Exhibition (LAGCOE) is held in Lafayette every other year because of the existence of the Oil Center. Married, December 12, 1922, Germaine Rosenthal, a native of France; two children: Jacqueline (Mrs. Isidore Cohn, Jr.) and Herbert. Died July 25, 1967. F.L. Source: Author's research.

HEYWOOD, Walter Scott
, businessman. Born, Cleveland, Ohio, May 21, 1872. Sought adventure by prospecting for gold in Alaska. With his brothers, Alba, 0. W., Clint, and Dewey, drilled oil in California and Spindletop field near Beaumont. Heywood brothers formed Jennings Oil Company with local businessmen, April 29, 1901. The first oil was struck in Louisiana near Jennings, September 21, 1901. Owned and operated fleet of barges on the Mermentau River; built a pipe line from the oil field to the rail line. Moved to Jennings and became active in civic affairs: Chamber of Commerce, World War II ration board, Jennings Municipal Airport. Elected state senator and fathered homestead exemption law. Died, Jennings, November 28, 1950; interred Greenwood Cemetery. C.F.L. Sources: Hildebrand, As I Remember; Jennings Daily News, obituary, November 29, 1950; July 2, 1976.

HICKEY, Philip, planter. Born, Manchac (now East Baton Rouge Parish, La.), June 17, 1778; son of Daniel Hickey (d. 1808) and Martha Sriven ([?J d. 1794). Operated several large plantations in East Baton Rouge Parish. Married Ann Mather (1779-1851), daughter of James Mather (q.v.), April 24, 1800. Children: Martha Frances (b. 1802), married Simon W. Walsh, 1827; Elizabeth Constance (b. 1804), married James Scallan, 1820; Caroline, married Morris Morgan, 1832; Adele, married Henry W. Fowler, 1835; Daniel, married Mary Elizabeth Towles, 1848. There were other children. Captain of cavalry in the Spanish militia; active in the West Florida Rebellion, 1810. State senator; colonel, Eleventh Regiment, Louisiana Militia, during War of 1812. Erected the first sugar mill in East Baton Rouge Parish in 1814. Trustee, College of Baton Rouge. Died, Hope Plantation, East Baton Rouge Parish, October 1, 1859. A.W.B. Sources: Philip Hickey Family Papers, Louisiana State University Department of Archives and Manuscripts; DeBow's Review, XI (1851); Isaac J. Cox, The West Florida Controversy, 1798-1813 (1918); sacramental records, Diocese of Baton Rouge, 1770-1852.

HICKS, Samuel Bailey, businessman. Born, Rusk, Tex., July 17, 1860; son of Francis Marion and Anne E. Hicks. Education: Thatcher Institute of Shreveport; Soulé Business College, New Orleans. Returned to family home in Shreveport. Early in his business career, joined father in the F. M. and S. B. Hicks Company. He later took over the business and it came to be called Hicks Co., Ltd. It became one of the largest wholesale grocery and cotton factoring businesses in the area. President of Lodwick Lumber Co.; director, First National Bank. President, S. B. Hicks Motor Co.; local director, Kansas City Southern; Food Administrator for Fourth Congressional District during World War I. Married, April 30, 1902, Mamie Bourquin of Shreveport. One child, Samuel B. Hicks II. Member, First Presbyterian Church. A Democrat, 32nd Degree Mason, director of Shreveport Chamber of Commerce, and Shreveport Country Club. Died, April 17, 1925. P.L.M. Sources: Lilla McLure and J. Ed Howe, History of Shreveport and Shreveport Builders (1937); Maude Hearn O'Pry, Chronicles of Shreveport (1928).

HIGGINS, Andrew Jackson
, businessman, inventor. Born, Columbus, Neb., August 28, 1886. Education: attended International Correspondence Schools; Creighton University, graduated 1906; honorary doctorate of laws, Creighton University, 1943. Married Angele Colsson, October 16, 1908. Six children. Lumber mill owner and operator in Alabama and Mississippi, 1908-1915. Lumber broker and exporter in New Orleans, 1915-1920. President, Higgins Lumber and Export Co., New Orleans, 1920-1930. President, Higgins Industries, Inc., 1930-1952. Higgins' firm built motor boats, planes, engines, ship radios, etc. In 1936 Higgins designed the Eureka boat, a shallow vessel used by oil drillers and trappers along the Gulf Coast and Mississippi River. In 1939 the Marine Corps adopted the boat as a landing craft for infantrymen. Higgins also designed torpedo boats and patrol boats used during World War II. Member of numerous professional organizations. Democrat; Unitarian; Mason. Died, New Orleans, August 1, 1952. A.W.B. Sources: Jerry Strahan, "Higgins: The Man, the Boat, the Industry" (M.A. thesis, University of New Orleans, 1976); Who's Who in America, 1952-1953; "Andrew Jackson Higgins," Dictionary of American Biography, Supplement 5, 1951-1955.

HIGGINS, Edward, Confederate general. Born, Norfolk, Va., 1821. Lived for a time with an uncle in Iberville Parish, La. Appointed a midshipman in the U. S. Navy from Louisiana, 1836. Promoted to rank of lieutenant and commanded an ocean steamer, 1844-1848. Resigned in 1854 and ran a mail steamship operation between New Orleans and New York. Appointed a captain in the First Louisiana Heavy Artillery, April 1861. Served as an aide-de-camp to Maj. Gen. David E. Twiggs, May to October 1861. Appointed lieutenant colonel, Twenty-second Louisiana Infantry Regiment, February 13, 1862. Assigned to command Fort Jackson and Fort St. Philip below New Orleans. Promoted to rank of colonel, Twenty-second Louisiana Regiment, April 11, 1862. Captured at the surrender of the forts, April 27, and imprisoned until August 13, 1862. Commander of the Confederate defenses at Synder's Bluff, Miss., and later the heavy artillery at Vicksburg, Miss. Again captured at the surrender of Vicksburg, July 4, 1863. Commanded the harbor defenses at Mobile, Ala., November 1863 to October 1864. Saw no further active service during the Civil War. Operated an import and insurance business in Norfolk, Va., until 1872. Removed to San Francisco and acted as an agent for the Pacific Mail Steamship Company. Died, San Francisco, Calif., January 31, 1875; interred Holy Cross Cemetery. A.W.B. Sources: Ezra J. Warner, Generals in Gray (1959); Mark M. Boatner III, The Civil War Dictionary (1959); Clement A. Evans, Confederate Military History, 13 vols. (1899).

HIGHGATE, Edmonia G., educator. Born in New York state. Joined the American Missionary Association during the Civil War and in 1865 became principal of New Orleans' Frederick Douglass School. She criticized the city's established free colored community for ignoring the needs of the newly freed black population. After the New Orleans Riot of 1866, she removed to Vermilionville (present-day Lafayette, La.) where her knowledge of French brought her into close contact with local freedmen and their schools. Though popular among blacks, Highgate was twice shot at by enraged whites. She returned to New Orleans where she later protested racial segregation in the city's schools in a public speech. Ultimately defeated, she moved to Mississippi in 1867, became a collection agent for the AMA, and departed in 1871. T.F.R. Source: Joe M. Richardson, Christian Reconstruction (1986).

HILAIRE DE GENEVAUX, missionary. Born in France, ca. 1715. Member of the Champagne Province of Capuchins. Arrived in Louisiana 1753 to serve under Fr. Dagobert de Languory, vicar general to the Quebec bishop, Henri-Marie de Pontbriand (1741-1760), spiritual leader of the province. After visit to France, returned to Louisiana, 1764, as superior of the Capuchin mission and with the title of prothonotary apostolic, the first to claim that ecclelsiastical rank within what is now the continental United States. Wrote a religious manual entitled Catechism for the Province of Louisiana. Religio-political opposition to Hilaire forced departure from New Orleans and then from the colony, 1765. Returned to Louisiana, July 19, 1772, with the first group of Spanish Capuchins sent to the province and headed by Fr. Cirillo de Barcelona (q.v.). Defended Cirillo's trenchant and critical report on religious conditions to Bishop Echevarria Filgueza of the Diocese of Santiago de Cuba, to which the colony had become attached by 1769. Ministered at Ste. Genevieve in Upper Louisiana for a few years until appointment as pastor in Pointe Coupde, 1778. Three years later he was at the Attakapas, ending his career in the area after nearly three decades in Louisiana-among the stormiest in the political and religious life of the French/Spanish colony. H.C.B. Sources: Archives, Archdiocese of New Orleans; Roger Baudier, The Catholic Church in Louisiana (1939).

HILDEBRAND, (Charles) Franklin, journalist. Born, Wabash, Ind., November 19, 1893; son of Charles Hildebrand and Sarah Jane Spencer. Education: local schools of Wabash; Manchester College, Indiana; The University of London. Served in the Third Infantry Division in World War I, saw action in the battles of the Marne and the Argonne Forest; awarded the Purple Heart and the Silver Star for gallantry in action. Married Mildred May Brown, November 10, 1920, in Columbus, md; daughter of Isaac Theodore Brown and Sarah Elizabeth Sibley. Children: Franklin (b. 1929), Elizabeth (b. 1933). Owned newspapers in Portland, Ind., and Elkin, N. C. Purchased the weekly Jeff Davis Parish News in Jennings in 1930; converted paper to daily in 1948 and changed the name to The Jennings Daily News. Sold the paper in 1957 and retired to New Hampshire. Popular public speaker. Helped organize Jennings Production Credit Association. Member: First Presbyterian Church, World War II Draft Board, American Legion, Veterans of Foreign Wars, Thirty-second Degree Mason, the Blue Lodge and Scottish Rite. Past president: Jennings Rotary Club, Jennings Chamber of Commerce and Business Men's Club. Wrote 104 newspaper columns after his retirement about the history of Jefferson Davis Parish, published after his death in book form called, As I Remember. Died December 14, 1966, Peterborough, N.H.; interred Temple. N.H. C.F.L. & E.H.C. Sources: Franklin Hildebrand, As I Remember; Jennings Daily News, obituary, December 15, 1966; Family papers.

HILL, Earl E., politician, farmer. Born, Richland Parish, La., December 8, 1910; son of Elbert Hill and Etta Logan, both of Mississippi. Educated in local schools. A cotton farmer. Elected to Richland Parish Police Jury for term 1948-1952. Elected sheriff, Richland Parish, 1952; served in that capacity until 1976. Member, Masonic Lodge, National Sheriffs Association; helped to organize Dixie Boys Baseball teams in parish. A Baptist. Married (1) Betzel Eppinett, (2) Lois W. Hill. Children: Frances, Sandra Kay, and Winston. Died October 10, 1983; interred Lynn Cemetery, Archibald, La. G.R.C. Sources: William E. Skaggs and J. B. Lux, eds., Louisiana Business and Professional Directory (1955?); Richland (Parish) Beacon-News, October 17, 1983.

HIMEL, Numa
, physician. Born, 1857, Assumption Parish, La.; son of Oville (Ovide) Himel and Josephine Rousseau Himel. Education: grade school in Virginia. Received medical training at Tulane University. Interned in New York. Father removed from Assumption Parish to the river road at St. Amelia Plantation (St. James Parish). Built a small apartment and office next to his father's home. Never married. After father's death continued to live near his father's second wife, Eugenia Bourreaux Himel, his widowed sister, Mary Himel Blanchard, and her three children, and Josephine Himel, an unmarried sister. His practice stretched from St. James approximately to St. Joseph Plantation. Before the automobile, traveled along the "mud" river road in horse and buggy. When he was needed, patients put out a white flag in front of their home. Practiced fifty years in same area. E.C.F. Source: Author's research.

HIMEL, Oscar, planter. Born, Assumption Parish, La., 1850; son of Ovide and Josephine Rousseau Himel. Education: attended school in Bowling Green, Ky., prior to the Civil War; at age 16 served as a courier during the war; captured and jailed at Thibodaux; released at war's end. Bought Himelaya Plantation from uncle in 1868. Married Dorothy Cordelia Bernard in 1869. Children: Eliska, Walter, Cora Philimine, Sidney, and Lena Josephine. Sold plantation and donated church to plantation workers in 1906. Removed to New Orleans. Died, 1915. E.C.F. Source: Author's research.

HINES, Samuel James
, brick mason, contractor, inventor. Born, Alexandria, La., August 31, 1885; son of Hogan Hines and Jane Ambler Hines. Orphaned at age five, reared by sister Laura and her husband, Henry Eckley. Education: Academy of St. James Methodist Episcopal Church (now Newman Memorial United Methodist Church); Peabody Public School; Gilbert Academy, Baldwin, La. Married Lilie Florence George. Children: Samuel James, Jr. (d. 1931), and Olga Loretta, who married Samuel Ellsworth Hayward, Jr. A master mason. Inventor of a lawn edger, 1932, which was attached to a lawnmower; patented his invention and exhibited it at the Texas Centennial Exposition, 1936. Other inventions. Member, Masonic Scottish Rite; Alexandria Bricklayers' Union; St. James Catholic Church. Died, Alexandria, La., January 10, 1965. O.L.H.H. Source: Author's research.

HINTON, Isaac Taylor
, evangelist and colonizationist. Born, Oxford, England, July 4, 1799. Educated as a printer. Opened London business in 1820 editing and publishing the Sunday-School Magazine. Was licensed to preach in 1821; became pastor of Baptist church in London. Emigrated to Philadelphia in 1822, and accepted pastorate of Baptist church in Richmond, Va., where his anti-slavery views made him unpopular. Resigned post and removed to Chicago, 1835, where teaching job supplemented small income from pastorate at First Baptist Church. Though popular, his anti-slavery views again divided his congregation, forcing him to leave for St. Louis in 1841. Three years later, accepted a call to New Orleans. There, worked closely with Methodist leader William Winans (q.v.) and other individuals in furthering the city's sporadic colonization movement and religious instruction of blacks. In two years, Hinton increased the Baptist community's single white congregation from 29 to 122 persons. Both his racial views and his liberal theology provoked criticism, but he remained a viable religious leader. Published History of Baptism (1841) and Lectures on the Prophecies (1843). Died, New Orleans, during the yellow-fever epidemic of 1847. T.F.R. Sources: James Grant Wilson and John Fiske, eds, Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography (1900); Timothy F. Reilly, "Religious Leaders and Social Criticism in New Orleans, 1800-1861" (Ph. D. dissertation, University of Missouri at Columbia, 1972).

HIRSCH, William R.
, businessman. Born, Shreveport, La., February 10, 1880. Educated, public schools. Was identified with Louisiana State Fair for over twenty-five years. Became known as Shreveport's "Good Will Ambassador." In 1912, he was elected a director of the Fair. Two years later he became president and in 1921 became secretary-manager. During his forty-year association with the Louisiana State Fair, twenty-five buildings and numerous events were added. In 1929 he was president of the International Association of Fairs and Expositions and in 1930 was elected president of the International Motor Contest Association and until 1934 headed its governing body of major motorcar racing events. Until 1929, he was senior member of Hirsch and Leman, stationers, which he had started in 1907. Member of B'Nai Zion Congregation, Mason, El Karubah Temple, and Shrine. Died, October 5, 1954. P.L.M. Sources: Lilla McLure and J. Ed Howe, History of Shreveport and Shreveport Builders (1937); J. Ed Howe, comp., Shreveport Men and Women Builders (1931).

HOADLEY, Isaac
, evangelist, missionary. Born in England, ca. 1825. Described as an energetic and promising missionary, "lately arrived from London." Apparently wished to follow in the footsteps of his predecessor and fellow-countryman, William Rondeau (q.v.) who was instrumental in establishing the "First African Church of New Orleans." With the help of black pastor Nelson Sanders (q.v.) of the "First African Baptist Church", 1844, established the "Second African Baptist Church" on Gainnid Street, 1849. His congregation numbered upwards of 200 black communicants; his modest income was $300 per year. T.F.R. Source: Timothy F. Reilly, "Religious Leaders and Social Criticism in New Orleans, 1860-1861" (Ph. D. dissertation, University of Missouri at Columbia, 1972).

HOAG, Herbert H., banker. Born, Chicago, Ill., December 16, 1874; son of Charles Hoag and Betsy Gage. Education: local schools, Spirit Lake, Iowa, and Jennings, La. Arrived Jennings 1888. Spanish American War service: Company K, Second U. S. Volunteer Infantry, commissioned second lieutenant before discharge, June 1899. Director of Calcasieu National Bank and manager of Jennings branch. Married (1), June 5, 1901, Jessie May Blackshere (d. 1908), daughter of Aaron Blackshere and Frances Core. Two children: Jessie May (b. 1906) and Dorothy (b. 1908). Married (2), June 5, 1911, Ethel Shear, daughter of Squire Shear and Jane Miller. Twin children: Herbert Howard and Ethel Elizabeth (b. 1912). Member and officer: Congregational and Presbyterian churches, Masonic Lodge, Rotary Club. Member: Jennings City Council, 1909-1911; Jefferson Davis Parish School Board, 1923-1926. Active parish chapter Red Cross. Known for work with teen-age boys. Died, March 14, 1946; interred Greenwood Cemetery, Jennings. J.M.H. Sources: "Jennings Daily Times Record," Minutes of Jennings City Council Minutes of Jefferson Davis Parish School Board; Hoag family records.

HOBBS, Lewis
, missionary. Born ca. 1790. Arrived in New Orleans in 1813 during extended tour of Old Southwest in search of converts to Methodism. Known as the so-called "weeping prophet," Hobbs attempted to integrate blacks and whites in religious services, thereby drawing serious objections from the city government. He left the city one year later, concerned over the plight of his "poor black people" and their white brethren. T.F.R. Source: Timothy F. Reilly, "Religious Leaders and Social criticism in New Orleans, 1800-1861" (Ph. D. dissertation, University of Missouri at Columbia, 1972).

HOFFPAUIR, Elita, Cajun singer. Born, New Iberia, La., December 29, 1915; daughter of Julien Hoffpauir (q.v.). Recorded extensively by John and Alan Lomax for the Library of Congress in 1934. Died, New Iberia, La., October 28, 1947. B.J.A. Source: Author's research.

HOFFPAUIR, Julien, Cajun singer, farmer. Born, November 4, 1878. Recorded extensively by John and Alan Lomax for the Library of Congress in 1934. Father of Elita Hoffpauir (q.v.). Died, New Iberia, La., October 2, 1953. B.J.A. Source: Author's research.

HOFFPAUIR, N. Smith, politician, jurist. Born, Estherwood, La., November 6, 1900; son of Lou Spell and Ellis Hoffpauir. Education: Estherwood High School, graduated 1918; Louisiana State University, B. S. degree, law degree, 1925. Married Lucille Hoyt, July 1, 1925. Child: Mary Lou. Page in state legislature; taught school in Church Point, La., for two years; mayor of Estherwood, 1926; state representative, 1928-1940; member, LSU board of supervisors; distirct attorney, Acadia Parish, 1942-1952; judge, Fifteenth Judicial District, 1952-1960. Member, Masonic order; Louisiana Law Institute; Theta Xi; state, district, and parish bar associations; district governor, Lions Club, active in Boy Scout work. Died, Abbeville, La., February 6, 1960; interred Woodlawn Cemetery, Crowley, La. J.B.C. Source: Crowley Daily Signal, obituary, February 8, 1960.

HOGAN, William Ransom
, academic. Born, Toledo, Ohio, November 23, 1908; son of the Reverend Lemuel Ransom Hogan and Irene Logan Hogan. Education: Clarksville (Texas) High School; Trinity University, 1929; University of Texas, M. A., 1932. Thesis: "The Life and Letters of Henry Austin, 1782-1852." University of Texas, Ph. D., 1942. Dissertation published as The Texas Republic: A Social and Economic History (1946). Served from private to captain, military intelligence, U. S. Army, 1942-1945. Began teaching at Ranger (Texas) Junior College and High School, 1929-1931, and Louisiana State University, 1933-1935. Regional historian for twelve Southern and Southwestern states, National Park Service, Santa Fe, N. M., 1935-1938. Assistant archivist, Louisiana State University, 1938-1941; Rosenwald Research Fellowship at University of Texas, 1939-1941; associate archivist, Louisiana State University, 1941-1942; and head of the Department of Archives, 1946. Associate professor of History, University of Oklahoma, 1946-1947; associate professor of History, Tulane University, 1947-1949; professor, 1949-1971. Chairman, History Department, 1953-1968. Married Jane Carpenter Ogg, June 20, 1949. Three stepchildren. A pioneer scholar in the area of United States social and economic history, Hogan faithfully taught and administered historical programs. With the assistance of a Ford Foundation grant, he shepherded the growth of the Archives of New Orleans Jazz from its beginning in 1958. Hogan's publications reflect the stages of his career. He published a book review (Journal of Southern History, I, 1935) and three articles early: "The Theatre in the Republic of Texas," Southwest Review, XIX (1934); "Henry Austin," Southwestern Historical Quarterly, XXXVII (1934); and "Pamelia Mann, Texas Frontiersman," Southwest Review, XX (1935). While working for the National Park Service in the 1930s, he served as a guide for H. E. Bolton. Bolton's panoramic sweep of the Spanish borderlands from Georgia to California later became a base for Hogan's graduate students at Tulane through use of a large relief map as a fixture in the seminar room. Hogan's archival career demonstrated his thorough, precise, work habits. He summarized the initial four years of activities at the Louisiana State University archives in Guide to the Manuscript Collection in the Department of Archives, Louisiana State University, vol. I, 2nd ed. (1940). This was part of the federal Works Projects Administration in Louisiana. Hogan's archival work led to his collaboration with Edwin A. Davis on two books. Their negotiation for the only known extant diary of a free Negro in the antebellum South blossomed into William Johnson's Natchez: The Ante-Bellum Diary of a Free Negro [19511. In a review (American Historical Review, LVII (1951)) John Hope Franklin noted careful editorial work on the newly documented "watchful eye of this mulatto Pepys." A biography of Johnson appeared three years later as The Barber of Natchez (1954). Bill Hogan undertook a similar project requiring diplomacy in editing with his wife, Jane Carpenter Hogan, the reminiscences of his mother-in-law: Tales from the Manchaca Hills: The Unvarnished Memoirs of a Texas Gentlewoman (1960). The history of religion, sports, and leisure time became one of Hogan's main areas of scholarly interest. It began in 1953 as research on eighteenth- and nineteenth-century leisure time activities in the United States. Over the years he held grants from the Ford Foundation Fund for the Advancement of Education, and elsewhere, for brief study at Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and Amherst on the history of religion in the United States, the intellectual history of Europe and America, and the immigrant in American history. He became a John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation Fellow for study of the topic "pleasure and sin" during the 1962-1963 school year. The magnum opus of these years of efforts remained unfinished. Parts of it can be appreciated in Hogan's loosely structured but provocative article, "Sin and Sports," in James A. Knight and Ralph Slovenko, Motivations in Play, Games, and Sports (1967). The following year Hogan served as one of three assistant editors for Tulane Graduate School's contribution to the 250th Anniversary of the founding of New Orleans: Hodding Carter, et al., The Past as Prelude: New Orleans, 1718-1968 (1968). Hogan's omnivorous reading and broad experiences with people provided unique grist for his mind. He would synthesize a social trend in a cautiously understated comment, or through an extravagantly colorful story of illustration. Hogan left his mark indelibly on both the teaching and writing of history in Louisiana and Texas. Died, New Orleans, of a stroke, September 25, 1971; interred Live Oak Cemetery, Manchaca, Tex. Tulane University honored him by renaming his labor of love the William Ransom Hogan Jazz Archives on March 31, 1974. J.P.M. Sources: Article on W. R. Hogan in the Handbook of Texas; Hogan Papers, Barker Texas History Center and the University of Texas Archives, Austin; Louisiana Collection, Archives Department, LSU-Baton Rouge; Louisiana Collection and the William Ransom Hogan Jazz Archives, Tulane University; Who's Who in America, 1970-71; Directory of American Scholars, editions 1-5; conversations with Edwin A. Davis, Herbert Gambrell, Frank Vandiver, and Frank Wardlaw; see Wardlaw's tribute in Southwestern Historical Quarterly, LXXV (1971-72); obituary and editorial of tribute, New Orleans Times-Picayune, September 27, 1971.

HOLBROOK, Alva Morris, journalist. Born, Townsend, Vt., August 23, 1808. Removed to New Orleans, 1836. In 1839 joined Francis A. Lumsden (q.v.) and George W. Kendall (q.v.) as a partner in the operation of the Picayune. After the death of Lumsden in 1860, firm became known as Kendall, Holbrook and Co. Managed the paper for the partnership. In 1874 became editor and sole owner of Picayune after having sold it two years before. Married, May 18, 1872, Eliza Jane Pointevent (q.v.). No children. Died, Bladon Springs, Ala., January 5, 1876; interred Metairie Cemetery. G.R.C. Source: New Orleans Daily Picayune, June 6, 7, 1876.

HOLBROOK, Eliza Jane Poitevent
, see NICHOLSON, Eliza Jane Poitevent Holbrook

HOLLAND, John Henry, attorney. Born, Hartford, Conn., ca. 1785. Removed to New Orleans before 1803. Served as sheriff of Orleans Parish before practicing law; grand master of the Grand Lodge of Louisiana, 1825-1828 and 1830-1839; delivered welcoming address, in French, to marquis de Lafayette (q.v.) in New Orleans, 1825; was central figure during 1830s in controversy between French-speaking Masons; chartered the first Masonic lodges in Texas under jurisdiction of Grand Lodge of Louisiana. Removed to Nacogdoches, Tex., 1839, practiced law. Returned to New Orleans in 1846; served as grand master of the Grand Council of Royal and Selected Masters of Louisiana, 1856-1864. Died, New Orleans, March 29, 1864; interred there. A.P.M. Sources: James B. Scot, Outline of the Rise and Progress of Freemasonry in Louisiana (1873); James Carter, Masonry in Texas (1955).

HOLLINGSWORTH, James M., planter, soldier. Born, Monroe County, Ala., December 9, 1830. Removed with family to Caddo Parish, La., 1840. Education: Western Military Institute, Drenon Springs, Ky., 1850-1854. Planter, Caddo and De Soto parishes 1855-1861. Married, March 9, 1859, Elizabeth Key Quarles. Children surviving infancy: Samuel (b. 1862), Lillian (b. 1864); Hearsey (b. 1874). Civil War service: lieutenant-colonel, Nineteenth Louisiana Regiment; distinguished himself at the Battle of Shiloh, Tenn. After war resumed career as planter in Caddo, Bossier, and De Soto parishes. Credited with organizing the first chapter of the White League in Shreveport area in 1873. Died, 1894. S.S. Source: Lilla McLure and J. Ed Howe, History of Shreveport and Shreveport Builders (1937).

HOLMES, Daniel Henry, merchant. Born, near Point Pleasant, Ohio, April 28, 1816. Orphaned at age two, raised by brother Sam Holmes in Cincinnati, clerked in dry goods store owned by Eugene Levassor where he learned business methods and French language, clerked at Lord and Taylor in New York, sent to New Orleans to open Taylor, Medley and Co. Opened his own store, 1841, which he enlarged, 1842, opened the large store on Canal where the Canal Street store is currently located, 1849. Married, 1847, Eliza Maria Kennison of New Orleans. Children: Georgine (b. 1848), Lillie Jane (b. 1849), Daniel Henry (b. 1851), Mary Eliza (b. 1853). Established family home in Covington, Ky., 1853. Traveled extensively in the U. S. and Europe on business. Established home for family in France, 1865-1867. Built "Holmesdale" mansion at Covington. Lived at New Orleans after death of wife, studying and continuing to travel. At his death, D. H. Holmes, Co., Ltd. was the largest store in the South. Died, New York, July 3, 1898; interred Metairie Cemetery, New Orleans. J.F.T. Sources: D. H. Holmes, Co., Ltd., The Legacy of Daniel Henry Holmes; obituary, New Orleans Times-Picayune, July 4, 1898; Henri A. Gandolfo, telephone interview, March 26, 1986.

HOOPER, Churchwell Alexander
, planter, businessman. Born, March 5, 1821. Participated in business and politics with his father, Thomas Hooper (q.v.), until middle 1850s when he removed to Harrisonburg, Catahoula Parish, La. A prosperous cotton ginner, sawmiller, operator of La Vacca Plantation at French Fork. A victim of the Civil War's economic aftermath, he declared bankruptcy in 1868. Married (1) Albertina Watson, married (2) Sarah Jane Glenn. Died, April 11, 1889; interred Rapides Cemetery near Pineville, La. L.S.H. Source: Author's research.

HOOPER, Louis Sylvester, tax consultant. Born, Pickering, Vernon Parish, La., April 28, 1902; son of Louis Wilburn Hooper (q.v.) and Frances Drummond; a descendant of Col. Thomas Hooper, a veteran of the Battle of New Orleans, and Mary Henrietta Wells, widow of Alexander Fulton (q.v.), founder of Alexandria. Sister, Lily, married Lethar E. Frazar (q.v.), lieutenant governor of Louisiana. Education: during World War I served in the U. S. Navy and with the S.A.T.C. at Southwestern Louisiana Institute (now University of Southwestern Louisiana), Lafayette; graduated from Soulé College, New Orleans. Married, November 10, 1929, in DeRidder, La., Catherine Agnes Lewis, daughter of Elbert Nathaniel Lewis and Malvina Carroll, scions of Beauregard Parish, La., pioneers. Children: Louis S., Jr., and Catherine (1933-1952). An employee of the U. S. Internal Revenue Service, 1937-1944. Removed to Shreveport, La.; became a tax consultant. Post commander, American Legion; chairman, National "Star" Committee in the Forty & Eight; Knight Templar; 32nd Degree Mason and Shriner. An organizer and first president, Leesville (La.) High School Alumni Association. Died, Shreveport, January 9, 1984; interred Hooper family plot, Leesville. L.S.H. Source: Author's research.

HOOPER, Thomas, businessman. Born in Georgia, March 7, 1788. Removed to Alexandria, La., in 1810. Associated with William Miller and Alexander Fulton (q.v.) in general merchandise business and cattle, farming and real estate. Married Mary Henrietta (Wells) Fulton, widow of Alexander. Two children, Churchwell Alexander (q.v.) and Logan Lavinia. A member of company of Rapides Volunteers who went to Battle of New Orleans in 1815. Returned home on Captain Shreve's boat Enterprise. Active in civic and community affairs as well as politics and was member of Whig party. Retired from active participation in community affairs and retired to his country home near Fishville, Grant Parish, La., then known as Big Creek. Postmaster at the place. A contemporary of Timothy Flint (q.v.), the author and teacher, and Henry Bullard (q.v.), lawyer and judge. Died, May 8, 1851; interred on home place. L.S.H. Source: Author's research.

HOPKINS, Henry, soldier. Born in Maryland. May have arrived in Louisiana in 1803 with U. S. Army under command of Gen. James Wilkinson (q.v.). On January 20, 1804, commissioned civil commandant of Attakapas District; with a small detachment of troops raised the American flag over the district. Gov. W. C. C. Claiborne (q.v.) stated that he sent Hopkins to the Attakapas because "there are two parties [the Declouet-St. Julien controversy] and so bitter are their animosities, that I cannot select a citizen there for civil commandant." Claiborne later reported that Hopkins had restored order and had won the support of the people of Attakapas. Served in Attakapas until October 1805 when he announced resignation from the army to settle in the territory. November 1, 1805, appointed adjutant general of Territory of Orleans. With strong support from Claiborne, began reorganization of territorial militia, noting that geography and language mitigated against good organization. Served as official courier for Claiborne in dealings with the Spaniards in Texas. No mention of marriage found. Served as adjutant general until his death. Died, probably of yellow fever, New Orleans, sometime between August 28 and November 11, 1811. G.R.C. Sources: Clarence Edwin Carter, ed., The Territorial Papers of the United States, IX, The Territory of Orleans, 1803-1812 (1940); Dunbar Rowland, ed., Official Letter Books of W. C. C. Claiborne, 1801-1816 (1917).

HOUSE, George Walter, physician. Born, Madison County, Ala., June 29, 1829; son of Samuel J. House and Louise Chambliss. Medical training, Nashville, Tenn. Civil War service: medical department (Old) Company 1, Ninth Regiment, Mississippi Cavalry, 1861-1862; Company D., Second Regiment, Miss., 1862-1865. After war, resumed medical practice in Canton, Miss. Married, January 14, 1864, Sallie M. Leggett of Canton, Miss. Children: George Walter House (b. 1865), Sallie Mae (b. 1874). Later practiced in New Iberia, Rayne, Abbeville before moving to Sulphur as the first medical doctor west of the Calcasieu River. Member: Methodist church. Died, Sulphur, April 2, 1899; interred Farquhar Cemetery, south of Sulphur. G.S.P. Sources: Military Service Records (MSR), National Archives (NNCC) GSA, Washington, D.C., Lake Charles Daily American, April 3, 1899; Genealogical Research; House Family Papers.

HOUZEAU, Jean-Charles, astronomer, journalist. Born, Jean-Charles-Hippolyte-Joseph Houzeau de Lahaie, near Mons, Belgium, October 7, 1820. Education: private schools; attended Free University of Brussels and University of Paris. Wrote scholarly articles on astronomy and articles popularizing technical knowledge; assistant astronomer at Royal Observatory, Brussels, 1846-1849 (dismissed because of socialist political activities); traveled and wrote, spending most of 1850s in France. Married, 1851; widower, 1865. Elected to Belgian Royal Academy, 1856. After brief stay in London, arrived in New Orleans, 1857; worked as land surveyor in Texas while collecting geological and botanical specimens and making astronomical observations, 1858-1862; assisted fugitive slaves and persecuted Unionists to escape from Texas, 1861-1862. Fled to Mexico, 1862-1863; adopted pseudonym, Charles J. Dalloz; wrote for New Orleans Union, 1863; edited New Orleans Tribune, first Negro daily published in United States, 1864-1868; adopted two Negro sons. Member, board of directors, New Orleans Freedmen's Aid Association, and vice-president, Louisiana Homestead Association; subject did not correct assumption that he was black. Settled in Jamaica, 1868-1876; published memoir of New Orleans years, Mon passage a la Tribune de la Nouvelle-Orléans (1870); director of Royal Observatory, Brussels, 1876-1883; remarried after 1876. Major works include Bibliographie générale de l'astronomie and L'étude de la nature, ses charmes et ses dangers. Died, Brussels, Belgium, July 12, 1888. F.M.J. Source: David C. Rankin, "Introduction" in Jean-Charles Houzeau, My Passage at the New Orleans Tribune: A Memoir of the Civil War Era (1984).

HOWARD, Charles Turner, gambler, philanthropist. Born, Baltimore, Md., March 4, 1832; son of English immigrants, Richard Turner Howard and Elizabeth Harrison. Education: public schools of Philadelphia. Removed to New Orleans, 1852. Civil War service: documented 1861 enlistement in Company G in Crescent City Regiment. Sickness led to discharge, 1862. A dispute over validity of subsequent service in the Confederate cavalry in Alabama led to resignation of two members of Society of the Army of Tennessee when Howard was elected to that group after the war. Married, 1854, Florestile Boullemen of New Orleans, daughter of Pierre Boullemen. Children: Frank (q.v.), Harry, William, and Annie (b. 1864). Member: Boston Club, Louisiana Jockey Club, Krewe of Rex. Probably Episcopalian. National notoriety came after Civil War as president of Louisiana Lottery. Appointed (1854) Louisiana agent for the Alabama Lottery by C. H. Murray's New York gambling syndicate. After war, maintained same syndicate connection in Louisiana as agent for the Kentucky State Lottery. After Louisiana Lottery was created by the Louisiana legislature, 1868, Howard became lottery's first president, 1869. Reliquished presidency, 1876, but recognized as lottery's leading force until death in 1885. Widespread popularity of gambling in Louisiana and reputed bribery of state legislators allowed gambling operation to survive both Republican and Democratic administrations until its demise in 1894. Howard's knack for favorable publicity also helped lottery's survival. Recruited popular Confederate generals P. G. T. Beauregard (q.v.) and Jubal Early to conduct drawings for the lottery and bestowed gifts upon public schools, volunteer fire companies, orphanages, and veterans groups throughout the state. Spurned by some of social elite, Howard sought social prestige and recognition. Said to have purchased the Metairie Race Track because its jockey club denied him membership and, 1872, converted the grounds into the Metairie Cemetery. After his death in 1885 resulting from a fall off a horse, Howard's family established, 1889, in his honor the Howard Memorial Library (later absorbed into the Howard-Tilton Memorial Library of Tulane University) and the Confederate Museum. Died, Dobbs Ferry, N.Y., May 31, 1885; interred Metairie Cemetery, New Orleans. J. L. Sources: John S. Ezell, Fortune's Merry Wheel: The Lottery in America (1960); National Cyclopedia of American Biography (1900); Jewel's Crescent City Illustrated; Obituaries: New York Times, June 1, 1885; New Orleans Daily Picayune, June 1, 6, 1885.

HOWARD, Frank Turner, businessman, philanthropist. Born, New Orleans, May 31, 1855, son of Charles Turner Howard (q.v.) and Florestile Boullemen. Education: schools of New Orleans, Washington and Lee University; Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, N. Y. Married (1) Emma Corey (1880), two sons, Edgar and Alvin. Married (2) Elizabeth Fairchild, no children. With John H. Pike formed banking and brokerage firm of Pike and Howard. Stockholder and/or director of numerous corporations, including New Orleans Gas Light Co., New Orleans City Traction Co., New Orleans National Bank, MacGinnis Cotton Mills. Secretary-treasurer, Howard Memorial Library, founded by sister in 1889 in memory of father. Served as president of Fisk Free Library and New Orleans Public Library. First president and patron, Louisiana Historical Association. Instrumental in acquiring land for Confederate Melorial Hall, headquarters of Louisiana Historical Association. Donated funds for construction of Memorial Hall, which opened December, 1890. Built two schools, New Orleans. First recipient of Picayune Cup for public service. Died, New York, October 24, 1911, after an operation; interred New Orleans. G.R.C. Sources: Kenneth Trist Urquhart, "Seventy Years of the Louisiana Historical Association," Louisiana History, I, 5-23; Alcée Fortier, Louisiana ... , 3 vols. (Atlanta, 1909); New Orleans Daily Picayune, October 25, 1911.

HOWARD, Henry, architect. Born, Cork, Ireland, February 8, 1818; son of Thomas Howard. Education: Mechanics Institute, Cork; learned rudiments of architectural drawing and mechanics from father, a building contractor. Married, in New Orleans, 1839, Miss Richards of New York. Eleven children, of whom six daughters and two sons were living in 1872. Immigrated to New York in the spring of 1836; worked in a mirror and frame shop for eighteen months; arrived in New Orleans, September 20, 1837, to visit older brother; worked as a carpenter and specialized in stair building; studied architecture in 1845 with James Dakin (q.v.) and Henry Mulhousen. Designed and built Nottaway Plantation house, 1849-1858; was principal draftsman in the Confederate States Naval Iron Works, Columbus, Ga.; returned to New Orleans after the war; some New Orleans buildings he designed still extant are Pontalba buildings, Jackson Square; Dufour's house on Esplande; Sts. Peter and Paul Church; and Carrolton Courthouse (now Benjamin Franklin School). Died, New Orleans, November 25, 1884. J.B.C. Sources: Clarence John Laughlin, Henry Howard, Architect: An Exhibition of Photographs of His Work, ed. by Samuel Wilson, Jr. (New Orleans, 1952); Charles L. Dufour, "Henry Howard: Forgotten Architect," Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, XI, No. 4 (1952); New Orleans Daily Picayune, obituary, November 26, 1884.

HOWE, Henry van Wagenen, academic. Born, Fulton, N.Y., June 15, 1896; son of Herbert Crombie Howe and Georgia Emeny. Education: Eugene, Ore., public schools; University of Oregon, A. B., 1916; Yale Law School, 1916-1917. Superintendent of Schools, Canyon City, Ore., 1917-1918. U. S. Army Officers Training School, 1918. Graduate study, Geology, University of Oregon, 1918-1919. Fellowship, Paleontology, University of California, 1919-1921. Graduate Fellow, Paleontology-Petrography, Stanford, 1921-1922. Ph. D., Stanford, 1922. Married, July 26, 1918, Cecil Evelyn Jones, daughter of James Isaac Jones, Mitchell, Ore., rancher, and Laura Jane Sasser. Children: Patricia Evelyn (b. 1926), Herbert James and Eleanor Adrienne (b. 1931), Robert Crombie (b. 1939). U. S. Geological Survey, summer, 1921; associate professor, Louisiana State University, 1924; professor, 1925; Boyd Professor,1965; emeritus, 1966. Director, LSU, School of Geology, 1931-1944; dean, College of Arts and Sciences, 1944-1949. LSU Athletic Council, 1930-1955. Revived Louisiana Geological Survey, 1931; director, Research Division, 1934-1949. Member State Mineral Board, 1937-1940; chairman, 1964-1966. World authority on foraminifera and ostracoda. Author of some 200 papers and four books, notably Handbook of Ostracod Taxonomy (1955). Recipient Sidney Powers Memorial Medal, American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 1960. Member: St. James Masonic Lodge, Baton Rouge; Geologic Society of American; American Association Petroleum Geologists; Phi Beta Kappa, Sigma Xi; Sigma Alpha Epsilon; Theta Tau; Phi Kappa Phi; Sigma Upsilon; TG. & M. Society; O.D.K.; Fellow A.A.A.S.; Louisiana Academy of Sciences, secretary 1929; American Geophysics Union; Commission on Micropaleontology, National Research Council; Paleontological Society; Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, secretary-treasurer, 1937-1939; president, 1941. Died, Baton Rouge, September 27, 1973; interred Green Oaks Mausoleum. F.K.* Sources: Family records; LSU Geology Alumni Journal, No. 1 (July, 1979); Who Was Who in America, Vol. VI, 1974-76; Files, Louisiana Room, LSU Library; James P. Morgan, Memorial to H. V. Howe.

HOWELL, Rufus K., attorney, jurist. Arrived in New Orleans, 1850, and was a school director for several years before being elected district judge, 1857. Although opposed to secession, stood for reelection in 1861 and continued to serve under the Confederacy, yet he failed to file an oath to that government. Among the first leaders of the city to come forward supporting Federal occupation and the Union Association. Retained by the military as a district judge until resignation in July 1864. Before resignation had already been elected as a delegate from the Seventh District of New Orleans to the 1864 state constitutional convention, where after being defeated by Edward H. Durell (q.v.) as president, he was elected as president pro tern. The following year in April Gov. J. Madison Wells (q.v.) appointed him associate justice of the state's supreme court, a position he retained until 1877. In June 1866, when Durell, despite the urging of many unionists refused to call the convention back into session, because he feared an outbreak of violence, Howell, with the support of Gov. Wells, called the convention into session which resulted in a bloody riot. J.A.B. Sources: U. S. Congress. House, New Orleans Riots of July 30, 1866 (1867); Diary and Correspondence of Salmon P. Chase (1903); Andrew Johnson Papers, Library of Congress.

HOYT, Stephen A., military-mayor of New Orleans. Little is known of his background. Reported to be from the West, where he entered the Union Army, he had served as a commissary captain before Gen. Nathanial Banks (q.v.) appointed him mayor of New Orleans in February 1864. He worked actively in the political process which led to a new state government under the reconstruction plan of Abraham Lincoln. He allied himself with black leaders and the radical whites. He was dismissed from the office of mayor in March 1865 by Gov. James Madison Wells (q.v.) in order to conciliate conservative white voters. J.L. Sources: Gerald Capers, Occupied City: New Orleans Under the Federals, 1862-1865 (1965); Peyton McCrary, Abraham Lincoln and Reconstruction: The Louisiana Experiment (1978); John S. Kendall, History of New Orleans (1922).

HUBBS, Isaac G., educator, missionary. During Civil War, he was appointed by American Missionary Association to oversee education of Louisiana freedmen. As an administrator representing the Northern-based Congregationalist body, Hubbs worked closely with Union general Nathaniel P. Banks (q.v.) who appointed him to a three-man panel to manage statewide educational policy for freedmen. Though influential, Hubbs eventually lost out in his "radical" education efforts to bring the schools directly to the plantations; instead, district schools were founded and AMA control diminished. Hubbs was later expelled from the Department of the Gulf. T.F.R. Source: Joe M. Richardson, Christian Reconstruction (1986).

HUBER, Leonard Victor, businessman, historian, civic leader. Born, New Orleans, May 25, 1903; son of Victor Huber and Eleonora Reisig. Education: l ocal private and public schools; Tulane University School of Business Administration; honorary degree: Master of Humane Letters, Tulane University, 1974. Married, September 27, 1928, Audrey Wells, daughter of Lloyd R. Wells and Elizabeth A. Tobin. Children: Leonard Victor, Jr. (b. 1931), Lloyd Wells (b. 1938). Business: president, Victor Huber & Sons, Inc., owners and builders of Hope Mausoleum and Louisiana's first crematory. President, St. John Cemetery Association, Inc. Member of more than fifteen years of Civic Affairs Committee of the Chamber of Commerce of the Greater New Orleans area; chairman, 1947-1948. Chairman, New Orleans Venereal Disease Education Campaign, 1943; president, New Orleans Hygiene Society, 1944-1945. President, Louisiana Landmarks Society, 1956-1958; treasurer, 1959-1965, life member and recipient of its Harnett T. Kane Award, 1977. President, Orleans Parish Landmarks Commission, 1956-1984. Member, Advisory Committee, Vieux Carré Survey of Tulane University, 1960-1966. Member, board of directors, Friends of the Cabildo, Inc., 1965-1981, president, 1972-1973. Chairman, board of trustees, Keys Foundation, administrators of Beauregard House, 1961-1978; member, Vieux Carré Commission, 1957-1961; member, board of directors, Louisiana Historical Association, 1964-1966, 1970-1972, 1978-1983; Confederate Museum Committee, 1968-1972; president, 1979-1980. Founding member and president, Friends of Tulane University Library, 1976-1981. Member, board of directors, Louisiana State Museum, 1981-1984. Author of numerous books and articles including The Great Mail: A Postal History of New Orleans (1950); To Glorious Immortality: The Rise and Fall of the Girod Street Cemetery (1960); New Orleans: A Pictorial History (1971); Louisiana: A Pictorial History (1975); Mardi Gras: A Pictorial History (1975); Creole Collage (1980); Jackson Square through the Years (1982); Clasped Hands: Symbolism in New Orleans Cemeteries (1982); Landmarks of New Orleans (1984). Honorary life member, American Philatelic Society; Steamboat Historical Society of America. Member, board of directors, New Orleans Philharmonic Symphony Society, 1964, 1967. Member, St. Charles Avenue Presbyterian Church. Died, New Orleans, February 18, 1984; interred Hope Mausoleum. S.W. Sources: Family records and personal knowledge; Preservation (Louisiana Landmarks Society), February 1984; Louisiana History Newsletter, March 1984; New Orleans Times-Picayune, May 19, 1974; Times-Picayune/States-Item, February 19, 1984.

HUBER, Victor, cemetery memorial craftsman, musician. Born, Vienna, Austria, June 8, 1875. Emigrated to New Orleans, 1891. Originally a wood-engraver, he studied architectual drafting, worked in the monumental trade and eventually, 1906, founded his own business (later Victor Huber and Sons) for the construction of cemetery memorials. In 1918, he invented a new type of tomb which is still widely used and many examples of his craftsmanship are in Metairie and other New Orleans cemeteries. Married Eleonora Reisig, 1902. Children: Leonard V. (q.v.), Albert R. (1906-1973), and Elmer 0. (1910-1960). Between 1898 and 1904, a professional concert musician, teacher and composer who published a four-volume method for teaching the Tyrolian zither. Also played violin and sang in, and, later, directed, the New Orleans Quartet Club, a group of German-American singers. A member of St. John Lutheran Church, he directed its choir, 1920s-1930s. In 1929, bought the St. John Cemetery and in 1931, began construction of Hope Mausoleum, the first of such community mausoleums in the Deep South. A founding member of Deutches Haus, in 1934-1935 he served as its president and held office in other civic organizations. Died, New Orleans, April 24, 1941. L.H.† Source: Author's research.

HUBERT, Marc-Antoine, administrator. Arrived on Crozat's ship along with the governor Lépinay (q.v.) in 1716. When the Company of the Indies took control of Louisiana, it appointed him director-general of their concerns on February 9, 1718. Argued with Bienville and so resigned his directorship of the Company in 1720. Received an extensive land grant in the Natchez region where he built a house called St. Catherine's. Wanted to make Natchez the center of the colony rather than New Orleans. He returned to France to try to convince the Company to make Natchez the capital but died there without success shortly after his return. Introduced the silkworm to Louisiana and wrote many reports on the colony. S.L. Sources: Benjamin Franklin French, Historical Memoirs of Louisiana (1853); Marcel Giraud, Histoire de la Louisiane française, vol. III L'Epoque de John Law, 1717-1720 (1966); François-Xavier Martin, The History of Louisiana, From the Earliest Times, 2nd ed. (1882; reprinted., 1963).

HUCHET DE KERNION, Jean-François, Superior Council member. Born, Quimper, France, 1770; only son of Pierre Guillaume Huchet and Thomase Renée Guesdan de Keravel. Arrived in Louisiana, 1720; lived on the plantation "Petit Coulange" on the left bank of the Mississippi River in 1729. Married in New Orleans, 1736, to Jeanne Antoinette Mirbaize de Villemont (Widow Rivard). Only child: Jean René Huchet. Was installed as a councillor assessor on the Superior Council on March 9, 1748; promoted to titular councillor in July 1762; was active in Governor Kerlérec's (q.v.) behalf and signed, on April 29, 1763, the protest sent to France against Vincent Rochemore (q.v.). Was an organizer of the assembly which convened in New Orleans in January 1765 and voted to send an envoy to the French king to ask him to annul the act of cession of Louisiana to Spain. Played a key role in the arrest and deportation of Father Hilaire de Génévaux (q.v.) in 1765; wrote a strong endorsement of the petition to expel Governor Ulloa (q.v.) from the colony in 1768. Died, 1770. J.B.C. Sources: Grace King, Creole Families of New Orleans (1921); Marc de Villiers du Terrage, The Last Years of French Louisiana, trans. by Hosea Phillips, ed. by Carl A. Brasseaux and Glenn R. Conrad (1982); Henry P. Dart, ed., "Appointment of Members of the Superior Council of Louisiana in 1762," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XXI (1938).

HUDSON, Julien, portraitist. Born 1830. Noted for his skill in the portrayal of faces. Works: self-portrait, and portrait of Colonel Jean-Michel Fortier, Jr. (commander of a corps of free men of color at the Battle of New Orleans), a work exhibited at Howard University, 1967, and which now hangs in the Louisiana State Museum. D.D.C. Sources: Theresa Dickason Cederholm, Afro-American Artists: A Bio-Bibliographical Directory (1973); Cedric Dover, American Negro Art (1960); Elsa Honig Fine, The Afro-American Artist: A Search for Identity (1973); James A. Porter, Modern Negro Art (1969); Rosalyn Walker, A Resource Guide to the Visual Arts of Afro-Americans (1971).

HUFFT, Raymond Frederick, soldier, adjutant general. Born, New Orleans, August 4, 1914; son of Frederick J. Hufft and Casilda Holyland. Education: local schools; Warren Easton High School; Spencer Business College. In 1934, joined the Civilian Military Training Camp and later that year enlisted in the 108th Cavalry, Louisiana National Guard. Rose to rank of first sergeant, 1937; became second lieutenant in Officers' Reserve Corps, 1940. Promoted to first lieutenant, November 17, 1940, entered U. S. Coast Artillery School at Fort Monroe, Va., and returned to command Battery B, 105th Coast Artillery Antiaircraft. Called into federal service in January, 1941, trained at Camp 1-lulen, Tex., and left for the Pacific Theater in January, 1942. Promoted to rank of captain, April 1942; returned to U. S. March 1943; promoted to rank of major, June 1943. November 1943 left for the European Theater as battalion commander of the First Special Services Force. Became a lieutenant colonel on February 17, 1944, and placed in command of Forty-fifth Regimental Combat Team. Recipient of the Silver Star. His work in preparing the way for the U. S. Seventh Army to cross the Rhine River earned for him the Distinguished Service Cross. Subsequent heroics earned him three Bronze Star medals. Seriously wounded, April 17, 1945, recuperated in Georgia and was separated from active service in October 1945. As acknowledged war hero, was appointed adjutant general by Gov. Earl K. Long (q.v.), June 3, 1948, with rank of brigadier general. On November 1, 1948, received the appointment of brigadier general in the Adjutant General's Crops of the National Guard of the United States. Appointed state director of the Louisiana Selective Service System on July 13, 1948, and as director of Louisiana Civil Defense became the Louisiana state coordinator of disaster relief. Rank of major general bestowed, October 14, 1949. Again named adjutant general and director of Selective Service in May 1956. As Louisiana's most decorated soldier, he received the following awards and citations: Distinguished Service Cross; Silver Star with two oak leaf clusters; Bronze Star with three oak leaf clusters; Purple Heart with two oak leaf clusters; French croix de guerre with palm; Parachutist Badge; Combat Infantry Badge; Asiatic Pacific Theater Ribbon; European Theater of Operations Ribbon with six battle stars and bronze arrowhead; African Theater of Operations Ribbon with one battle star; American Defense Service Medal, Allied Ribbon; German Army of Occupation Medal; Unit Pressidential Citation, Louisiana Distinguished Service Medal; Armed Forces Reserve Medal; Louisiana Longevity Medal; Louisiana Emergency Service Medal; Louisiana War Cross; Dominion of Canada Honorary Life Membership in the Army, Navy and Air Force of Canada. An honorary life member, National Guard Association of Louisiana; honorary life member, Louisiana National Guard Officers' Club of New Orleans; member, National Guard Association of the United States, member, National Defense Committee, American Legion Department of Louisiana; Veterans of Foreign Wars; Military Order of World Wars. Member of the Young Men's Business Club, president of the New Orleans Athletic Club; member of Delta Phi Theta Fraternity; member, State Veterans Reemployment Rights Committee; chairman of the National Security Committee; member, Chamber of Commerce of New Orleans; member, New Orleans Army Advisory Committee; vice-president and general manager of Radio Station WNOE, New Orleans. Married Dorothy Robinson, June 11, 1939. Four children: James Michael, Mrs. Rayme Hufft Miller, Robin Ann, and Cindy Ann. Died, August 14, 1972. TAG, LA Source: Author's research.

HUG, Armand, jazz pianist. Born, New Orleans, December 6, 1910. Considered finest piano soloist in New Orleans. Played with numerous bands, worked the lake front "camps," Milneburg, Bucktown, Spanish Fort and Little Woods-then resort areas-and other old-time hot spots with Sharkey Bonano, Eddie Miller, Santo Pecora, etc. Played with the Owls Orchestra in 1928. In 1934, Blue Room of the Roosevelt Hotel. After wartime duties on the Gulf Coast, he took up solo engagements. Seven years at Musso's Club, five years each at the Sheraton Charles and Royal Orleans. Did radio shows, then TV with his own show Music Shop. Recorded fifteen solo albums, more than 150 singles records. Also prolific composer. Second wife, Linda. Died, New Orleans, March 19, 1977; interred Greenwood Cemetery. H.C. Sources: New Orleans Times-Picayune, Dixie Roto Magazine, November 5, 1972; New Orleans States-Item, obituary, March 22, 1977; John Chilton, Who's Who of Jazz (1972); Al Rose and Edmond Souchon, New Orleans Jazz, A Family Album, Third ed. (1984); Second Line, Summer, 1977.

HUGER, Emily Hamilton, born in New Orleans; daughter of William Elliott Huger and Elizabeth Devereaux Polk, daughter of Bishop Leonidas Polk (q.v.). Educated in the schools of New Orleans and New York, at Southwestern Louisiana Institute (now University of Southwestern Louisiana), and Newcomb Art School. In 1912 attended the International Art Congress at Dresden. Held the position of Head of the Art Department at Isidore Newman School, New Orleans. Died, Touro Infirmary, New Orleans, in early part of 1944. F. L. Source: Author's research.

HUGHES, Howard Robard, Sr., inventor, manufacturer. Born, Lancaster, Mo., September 9, 1869; son of Jean Amelia Summerlin and Felix Turner Hughes. Education: local schools of Lancaster and Keokuk, Iowa; military academies at Morgan Park, Ill., and St. Charles, Mo.; studied law at Harvard University, 1893-1894, and Iowa State University, 1895; earned no degree but passed bar exam, 1895. Married Allene Gano, May 24, 1904, in Dallas, Tex. Child: Howard R., Jr. (b. 1905). Career: practiced law in fathers office in Keokuk; interest in mining took him to Colorado, Oklahoma, and southwestern Missouri; went to Texas in 1901 after hearing of Spindletop oil strike; established drilling contract business, drilling for oil in Texas and Louisiana. Removed with family to Oil City, La., near Shreveport, in 1907; remained until 1909, doubling as postmaster and deputy sheriff to make ends meet. This Louisiana interlude changed his life; paid $150 to a millwright for a model of a crudely fashioned drill bit made of wooden spools whose main features were two cone-shaped cutters that continued to rotate when they touched a surface; developed the drill further at fathers home in Keokuk; the steel drill bit, which had no less than 166 cutting edges, was designed to cut through rock formations; it was successfully tested at Goose Creek, Tex., June 1909; was granted two patents on August 10, 1909. Removed to Houston, 1909, and established the Sharp-Hughes Tool Company which manufactured the drill bit; became sole owner of Hughes Tool Company in 1915. Died, Houston, January 14, 1924; interred Glenwood Cemetery. J.B.C. Sources: Donald J. Barlett and James B. Steele, Empire: The Life, Legend, and Madness of Howard Hughes (1979); Dictionary of American Biography.

HULL, Edgar, physician. Born, Pascagoula, Miss., February 20, 1904; son of Edgar Hull, Sr. and Alice Christine Rourke. Education: Pascagoula High School; one year of pre-medical studies, Louisiana State University, 1920-1921; then taught school for the regular six-month term at Bayou Cassotte, Jackson County, Miss.; and worked in other jobs to meet college expenses; completed his pre-medical studies at Louisiana State University, 1922-1923; enrolled at Tulane University School of Medicine, 1923-1927; M. D., 1927. Licensed to practice medicine in Louisiana, 1927. Internship at Highland Sanitarium (hospital), a ten-year-old facility of 108 beds in Shreveport. Remained there six months on the hospital staff, 1928. Practiced medicine in Pleasant Hill, La., 1929-1931. Hull married (1) Louise Parham (d. 1937) of Shreveport in Natchitoches, La., in 1930. On October 7, 1931, returned to New Orleans and became one of the founding staff and faculty at the new Louisiana State University Medical Center, through its affiliation with Charity Hospital. Markle Fellow to Costa Rica and Guatemala, 1944; Fulbright Professor to University of Bologna, 1950-1951; consultant to Taiwan, 1958. His primary hospital appointments were Charity Hospital of Louisiana at New Orleans, Hotel Dieu, and Mercy Hospital. Additional hospital consulting included Touro Infirmary and Baptist Hospital. Married (2) Mallory Page Warren in 1937. One son. Hull's administrative experience included acting head, 1939, and head, Department of Medicine, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, 1940-1954, and 1960-1966; and associate dean, 1954-1966. A local pioneer in electrocardiography. A master, American College of Physicians, and a member of the American College of Gastroenterology, the American College of Cardiology, and the Catholic Physicians Guild. Removed to Shreveport (1966) to head new Louisiana State University School of Medicine at Shreveport. Working with George R. Meneely, M. D., and many others, the difficult process of national AAMC accreditation was achieved and a second public medical school became a reality for the Bayou State within a brief span of thirty-five years. Served as dean at Shreveport from 1966 until retirement in 1973 to Pascagoula, Miss. Reserved his bombshell opinions until after the LSU Medical Center celebrated its golden anniversary in 1981. Beginning in 1983 his public recollections of the medical circumstances surrounding the death of Huey Long contradicted the published account of T. Harry Williams. Hull contended that Long probably could not have been saved by medical treatment, and that he surely did not die from medical or surgical incompetence. He also criticized himself. Although he spoke up for an autopsy on the senator, he did not do so repeatedly and was too easily overruled in those dramatic, difficult hours. Died, Pascagoula, Miss., October 25, 1984; interred Greenwood Cemetery. J.P.M. Sources: Directory of Medical Specialists, XIII (1968-1969); Louisiana's Family Doctor, XIII (1966), 18-21; American Men and Women of Science, 13th ed., III (1976); New Orleans Times-Picayune, obituary, October 27, 1984; Orleans Parish Medical Society Bulletin, (December, 1984); This I Remember: An Informal History of the Louisiana State University Medical Center in New Orleans (New Orleans, 1983); Hull's public comments on Huey Long's death were made in the L.S.U. Medical Alumni News (Fall, 1983); the Times-Picayune carried a story on it on December 20, 1983; the Associated Press news service carried the story on December 21, 1983, with a Shreveport dateline.

HULL, James, clergyman. Led early Episcopal community of New Orleans from 1814 until his death from tuberculosis in 1833. A doctrinal conservative, succeeded in improving the relations between the Episcopal church and other religious groups in New Orleans. Just before his death, Episcopal vestrymen started a major dispute when they tried to dismiss him. He refused to leave his post, arguing that canon law shielded him from secular or local reprisals. T.F.R. Source: Timothy F. Reilly, "Religious Leaders and Social Criticism in New Orleans, 1800-1861" (Ph. D. dissertation, University of Missouri at Columbia, 1972).

HUMPHREYS, Nellie Himler, pioneer, civic leader. Born, North English, Iowa County, Iowa, January 9, 1875; daughter of Frederick W. Himler and Anna McCombs. Educated in county schools. Married, June 19, 1895, William Fletcher Humphreys (q.v.); removed to Jennings, La. Three children: Merlyn W. Kenneth (1897-1974), Willma Humphreys Newton (1907-1979), and Meredith Humphreys Necessary (b. 1910). With husband, instrumental in establishing registry of early Jennings settlers, compiled during 50th anniversary celebration of founding of Jennings (1934). Served as librarian at the Jennings Carnegie Library; first student to register for initial Library Science course offered at Louisiana State University (1926). News correspondent for local newspapers. Member, Civic League, Delphian and Philharmonic Societies; Woman's Literary Club. Died, October 6, 1946; interred Greenwood Cemetery, Jennings. M.H.N.† Source: Author's research.

HUMPHREYS, William Fletcher, pioneer, civic leader. Born, September 17, 1866, Marshall County, Iowa, son of William Blanton Humphreys and Jane Carter. Removed, in 1887, with parents to Quaker settlement near Evangeline, La. Farmer, grocer. Married, June 19, 1895, Nellie Himler (q.v.); three children: Merlyn W. Kenneth (1897-1974), Willma Humphreys Newton (1907-1979), and Meredith Humphreys Necessary (b. 1910). With wife, instrumental in establishing registry of early Jennings, La., settlers, compiled during fiftieth anniversary celebration of founding of Jennings (1934). Mayor of Jennings. A founder of Palacious, Texas. Member, Jennings Male Chorus. Died, Jennings, December 27, 1942; interred, Greenwood Cemetery, Jennings. M.H.N.† Source: Author's research.

HUNT, Carleton, attorney, politician, academic. Born, New Orleans, January 1, 1836; son of Thomas Hunt II (q.v.) and Aglae Carleton. Education: University Grammar School, New Orleans; Harvard University, graduated, 1856; law department of University of Louisiana (now Tulane University), graduated, 1858. Admitted to bar the same year. Member of Constitutional Union Party convention, Baton Rouge, 1860. Appointed April, 1861, first lieutenant in Louisiana Regiment of Artillery during Civil War. Administrator of University of Louisiana, 1866; appointed professor of Admiralty and International Law in University of Louisiana, 1869; later, professor of Civil Law; dean of law school for ten years; chairman of the committee formed for the purpose of organizing the American Bar Association, 1878. Elected as a Democrat to the Forty-eighth Congress (1883-1885); thereafter resumed practice of law in New Orleans. City attorney, 1888-1892. Married, 1860, Georgine Conmac, daughter of Robert Conmac. Children: Edward, Thomas III and Robert, three daughters (all died in infancy). Died, New Orleans, August 14, 1921; interred St. Louis Cemetery II. G.R.C. Sources: James A. Renshaw, "The Hunt Family: A Sketch of Men of Great Attainment," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, V (1922); Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1949 (1950); New Orleans Times-Picayune, August 15, 1921.

HUNT, Randell I, attorney, educator, politician. Born, Charleston, S. C., December 31, 1806; son of Thomas Hunt I and Louisa Gaillard. Brother of Theodore Gaillard Hunt (q.v.), congressman and judge; Thomas Hunt II (q.v.), founder of the Medical College of Louisiana, and Randell's predecessor as president of the University of Louisiana (now Tulane University); William Henry Hunt (q.v.), Louisiana attorney general, U. S. judge, and secretary of the navy in administration of President Garfield. Education: Bishop John England's Classical and Philosophical Seminary; College of South Carolina, graduated, 1825. Studied law in the office of William Lance; admitted to the South Carolina bar in 1828. Ran unsuccessfully for state legislature, 1832; opposed Nullification and left South Carolina as a result of the issue. Settled briefly in New York before joining his brothers in New Orleans. Elected to Louisiana house of representatives, 1841; reelected, 1842. Active in Whig party. Elected as a delegate to the 1852 constitutional convention; served as chairman of the convention's Committee on the Judiciary. Following dissolution of the Whig party was associated with the American/Know-Nothing Party; ran unsuccessfully as its candidate for state attorney general in 1855. Later active in the Constitutional Union Party, vigorously supporting John Bell for the presidency. Elected to the state senate in 1860. Opposed secession but later professed loyalty to the Confederacy. Elected U. S. senator in 1866 but was refused his seat by the Senate. Appointed professor of Law, University of Louisiana in 1847; specialized in teaching commercial law, the law of evidence, and later, constitutional law; awarded the University's first Doctor of Laws degree in 1866; served as university president, 1867-1884; retired in 1888. In private practice, participated in many important cases of the day, including the Batture Case, the Slaughterhouse cases, and various cases involving the John McDonogh legacy. Married Ruhamah Ludlow, July 12, 1854 (or 1855), in Cincinnati, Ohio. No children. Member of the Episcopal church; member of the Boston Club. Died, New Orleans, March 22, 1892; interred, Metairie Cemetery. W.E. Sources: William H. Hunt, Selected Arguments, Lectures, and Miscellaneous Papers of Randell Hunt (1896); Alcée Fortier, Louisiana … (1914); Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography, III (1900); James A. Renshaw, "The Hunt Family," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, V (1922); New Orleans Times-Democrat, obituary, March 23, 1892.

HUNT, Theodore Gaillard, jurist, politician. Born, Charleston, S. C., October 23, 1805; son of Thomas Hunt I and Louisa Gaillard. Eldest of four brothers remarkable for their legal and medical talents, others being Randell I (q.v.), Thomas II (q.v.), and William Henry (q.v.). Completed preparatory studies; graduated Columbia College (New York City) School of Law; read law under Hugh S. Legate, admitted to the bar and practiced in Charleston. Opposed Nullification, removed to New Orleans. Active in Whig party; appointed district attorney for New Orleans; member, state house of representatives, 1837-1853; U.S. House of Representatives, 1853-1855; defeated for re-election, ran as Know-Nothing; judge, Criminal Court of New Orleans, 1859-1861. Civil War service: Although a Union man, served in Confederate Army, colonel in the Fifth Louisiana Regiment, 1861-1862; saw action in the Peninsula Campaign and the Seven Days; appointed by Gov. Henry W. Allen (q.v.), adjutant general of Louisiana with rank of brigadier general; remained in active service until end of war. After war, resumed law practice and opposed military reconstruction. Married, Cornelia Ford, widow of Col. Sam Ford, of Shreveport whom he met during the Civil War. One child, Randell II. Member: Episcopal church. Died, New Orleans, November 16, 1893; interred Metairie Cemetery. M.C. Sources: Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1971 (1971); New Orleans Daily Crescent, November 14-28, 1855; New Orleans Daily Picayune, obituary, November 17, 1893; James K. Greer, "Louisiana Politics, 1845-1860," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XIII (October, 1929).

HUNT, Thomas II, physician. Born, Charleston, S. C., May 18, 1808; son of Thomas Hunt I and Louisa Gaillard. Brother of Theodore Gaillard Hunt (q.v.), Randell Hunt I (q.v.), and William Hunt (q.v.). Educated in Philadelphia and at Ecole de Médecine, Paris. Removed to New Orleans with elder brother, Theodore, 1833. Surgeon at Charity Hospital. A founder of Medical College of Louisiana; professor of Physiology and Pathology; dean of the medical faculty; president of University of Louisiana (now Tulane University). Married (1), March 29, 1834, Aglae Carleton, daughter of Henry Carleton, associate justice, Louisiana Supreme Court, and Aglae D'Avezar de Castera. Children: Carleton (q.v.), Henry (died in childhood), Louise, and Julia. Married (2) Martha Caroline Pride of North Carolina. Member, Episcopal church. Died, New Orleans, March 20, 1867. G.R.C. Sources: James A. Renshaw, "The Hunt Family: A Sketch of Men of Great Attainment," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, V (1922); New Orleans Daily Picayune, March 21, 22, 1867.

HUNT, William Henry, attorney, politician, and public official. Born, Charleston, S. C., June 12, 1823; son of Thomas Hunt I of Nassau, New Providence, Bahamas, and Louisa Gaillard. Brother of Theodore Hunt (q.v.), Randell Hunt I (q.v.), and Thomas Hunt II (q.v.). Education: Hopkins Grammar School in Connecticut; Yale College, 1839-1842, poverty forced departure before graduation; Yale Law School, 1842, poverty forced departure; studied law with his brothers. Married (1) Frances Ann Andrews (d. 1864), November 16, 1848; (2) Elizabeth Augusta Ridgely (d. 1849), daughter of Commodore Charles G. Ridgely, October 14, 1852; (3) Sarah Barker Harrison in 1866, divorced in 1870; and (4) Louise F. Hopkins, June 1, 1871. Seven children from second marriage. Lieutenant colonel in Confederate Army, but only local service in New Orleans. Admitted to Louisiana bar, 1844, law practice in New Orleans, 1844-1878. Civil law professor, University of Louisiana (now Tulane University), 1866; elected Louisiana attorney general, 1876, but denied office by election commission; associate judge, U. S. Court of Claims, 1878-1881; secretary of navy, 1881-1882; envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to Russia from April 12, 1882, to February 27, 1884. Appointed first naval advisory board, 1881, for building modern U. S. navy. Active in politics, Whig, 1844-1854, Know-Nothing, 1854-1860, Constitutional Union, 1860, Southern Unionist, 1860-1865. Entertained Admiral David Farragut (q.v.) and his officers after fall of New Orleans; attorney in Slaughter House cases and Jackson v. Vicksburg, Shreveport and Texas Railroad Company case. Died, St. Petersburg, Russia, February 27, 1884; buried Oak Hill Cemetery, Washington, D. C. T.D.S. Sources: Dictionary of American Biography, IX (1946); National Cyclopedia of American Biography, IV (1900); U. S. Dept. of State, United States Chiefs of Mission, 1778-1973 (1973); Thomas Hunt, The Life of William H. Hunt (1922).

HUNTER, Clementine, primitive artist. Born, Hidden Hill, near Marco, Natchitoches Parish, La., 1885 or 1886; daughter of John Hunter and Mary Antoinette Adams. Family tradition holds that grandfather was an Irish horse trader who married a woman of Indian and black lineage; maternal grandmother was a slave brought to Louisiana from Virginia. Spoke only French until marriage to her second husband, Emanuel Hunter. Five children. Painting career began in 1946 when she discovered some leftover paints of an artist visiting Melrose Plantation. Her paintings, always primitive, are near-idyllic visions of people fishing, riding horses, going to school, or burying their dead. She is generally known for her pictures of aspects of plantation life. Pictures now included in many permanent collections of galleries across the nation. Died, Natchitoches, La., January 1, 1988; interred St. Augustine Cemetery, Isle Brevelle, La. J.B.C. Source: Authors research.

HUNTER, Pleasant Henderson, merchant, planter. Born, Beaver Island Creek, Rockingham, N. C., June 18, 1785; son of James Hunter and Mary McFarland. Married, December 31, 1809, Martha Kitchen of Natchez, Miss., daughter of Benjamin Kitchen and Mason Daniel. Six children lived to adulthood: Mary (b. 1810), Robert Alexander (q.v.), Pleasant Jackson (b. 1817), Benjamin Kitchen (b. 1819), Martha Ann (b. 1823), Pleasance (b. 1831). Removed to Alexandria, 1816. Established successful mercantile business on Front Street. Named incorporator of College of Rapides, 1819. Cooperated in early Methodist activities in Alexandria. Built Eden Plantation house on Bayou Rapides, 1830. Died, Bayou Rapides, November 2, 1830; interred Rapides Cemetery, Pineville, La. A.P.H.C. Sources: Walter Marvin Hunter, The Hunters of Bedford County, Virginia (1973); Henry W. Harper, Louisiana Methodism (1949); Bible of Pleasant H. Hunter.

HUNTER, Robert Alexander, attorney, politician and public official. Born, Natchez, Miss., December 20, 1812; son of Pleasant Henderson Hunter (q.v.) and Martha Kitchen. Married (1), March 1, 1831, Sarah Jane Ford of Bayou Robert, La., daughter of Jesse Ford and Dulla Barry Prince. Four children lived to adulthood: Eliza Louisa (b. 1836), Eobert Persifer (b. 1847), Benjamin Kitchen (b. 1849), and Edwin Gardner (b. 1852). Married (2) Elenora Newell. Mexican War service: Third Regiment, Col. Marks' Louisiana Volunteers; rose from rank of private to adjutant of regiment and colonel. Active in Democratic politics: state senator, 1846; state treasurer, 1855; appointed by President Buchanan head of State Board of Currency; later United States marshal, Western District of Louisiana; member of Democratic National Convention, Charleston, S. C., 1860; delegate to Southern Constitutional Convention, Baltimore, Md., 1860; Civil War service: Scout and sharpshooter, captured by Federals near Baton Rouge; imprisoned in New Orleans. Practiced law in Alexandria, 1865-1882. Died, Pineville, La., July 2, 1882; interred Rapides Cemetery. A.P.H.C. Sources: George P. Whittington, Rapides Parish, Louisiana, A History (1932; reprint ed., 1970); Walter Marvin Hunter, The Hunters of Bedford County, Virginia (1973); Bible of Pleasant H. Hunter.

HUTCHINS, Thomas, soldier, engineer, geographer. Born, Monmouth, N. J., 1730. Officer in French and Indian War; department of Indian Affairs, 1760-1762; British colonial army officer, 1763-1775. Exploration and survey expedition, 1766, to map the Ohio River, and the Mississippi River to Balize, including Fort Bute, Bayou Manchac, Lake Maurepas, Lake Pontchartrain and Lake Borgne areas; sketched Mississippi River from Balize to Fort Cavendish; mapped areas from New Orleans to Pensacola, 1771. Second expedition to explore Mississippi delta and fortify Pensacola as British officer, 1775-1781; American officer and geographer of the Southern Army, 1781-1783. U. S. government service, 1783-1789, as geographer to the United States until his death. Published Historical Narrative and Topographical Description of Louisiana and West Florida (1789). As U. S. Geographer directed survey and mapping of first seven ranges of old Northwest Territory, 1785-1787. Died, Pittsburgh, Pa., April 28, 1789. B. G. Sources: Thomas Hutchins, An Historical Narrative and Topographic Description of Louisiana and West Florida, facsimile and reprint series (1968); Anna M. Quattrocchi, "Thomas Hutchins, 1730-1789" (Ph. D. dissertation, University of Pittsburgh, 1944); Hutchins manuscripts of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

HUTCHINSON, William J., planter. Born, Lowndes County, Ala., 1832; son of John B. Hutchinson and Matilda Walker. Removed with parents to Rocky Mount, Bossier Parish, La., in 1843. Education: boarding school, Springhill, Ark.; Centenary Institute, Summerfield, Ala. Married, 1858, in New Orleans, to Adeline Strother, of Virginia, daughter of James P. Strother and Eliza Campbell Cummings. Children: Matilda (b. 1859), James (b. 1861), Margaret (b. 1862), Campbell (b. 1864), William, Jr. (b. 1865), John (b. 1867), Trigg (b. 1869), Charles (b. 1874), Leigh (b. 1877). Operated two plantations, Evergreen, in Bossier Parish, 1858-1872, and Caspiana, in Caddo Parish, 1851-1913. Member of Caddo Parish Police Jury, late 1870s-1884. Member, Methodist church. Died, Biloxi, Miss., June 9, 1913; interred Greenwood Cemetery, Shreveport. A.S.T. Sources: Biographical and Historical Memoirs of Northwest Louisiana (1890); Margaret Hutchinson McClellan, William Joseph Hutchinson and Family of Caspiana Plantation (1975); William J. Hutchinson Papers, LSU-S Archives; obituary, Shreveport Times, June 11, 1913; Shreveport Journal, June 10, 1913; Joseph K. Menn, The Large Slaveholders of Louisiana, 1860 (1964).

HYAMS, Henry Michael, lieutenant governor. Born, Charleston, S. C., March 4, 1806; son of Samuel Hyams. Removed to New Orleans, 1828, with cousin Judah P. Benjamin (q.v.). Education: s chools in Charleston; read law in New Orleans. Married Laura Mathilda. Six children baptized in Christ Church Episcopal Cathedral between 1846 and 1857: Henry Michael, Ingram R., John B., Judah B., Miriam, Richard, and Samuel S. Admitted to the bar, 1830; cashier of Donaldsonville, La., branch of Canal Bank; leader at anti-abolitionist meeting in Donaldsonville, 1835; appointed member of vigilante committee to thwart anti-slavery propaganda and quell any rebellions; active in Democratic party in New Orleans, 1853; elected to state senate, 1855; elected lieutenant governor, 1859; first Jew known to serve in that office in any state in the Union. Vice president, Association for the Relief of Jewish Widows and Orphans, 1855-1857. Died, June 25, 1875; interred Lafayette Cemetery, New Orleans. J.B.C. Sources: New Orleans Daily Picayune, obituary, June 26, 1875; Bertram Wallace Korn, The Early Jews of New Orleans (1969); New Orleans Genesis, IV (1865).

HYMAN, Thomas McCabe, clerk of Louisiana Supreme Court. Born, Alexandria, La., 1848; son of William B. Hyman (q.v.), chief justice of the Louisiana Supreme Court during and immediately after the Civil War. Education: schools of Alexandria; St. Joseph's Parochial School, Carrollton. Joined Washington Artillery after Civil War; eventually became commander of the Washington Artillery, with rank of major. At age 16 became deputy clerk of the supreme court. Later served as minute clerk. Studied law at University of Louisiana (now Tulane University) under Carleton Hunt (q.v.). After graduation served as minute clerk in the U. S. Circuit Court. Later served as city attorney in the Joseph Shakespeare (q.v.) administration. In 1891 unanimously selected by judges of state supreme court to be clerk of state court. Served in that capacity until death. Married, 1886, Anna de Lavillebeuvre, granddaughter of Gov. A. B. Roman (q.v.). Four daughters. Member, Louisiana Bar Association, Louisiana Historical Society (vice-president at the time of the Louisiana Purchase Centennial). Died, New Orleans, June 28, 1909; interred St. Louis Cemetery II. G.R.C. Sources: Military Records, Jackson Barracks Library; New Orleans Daily Picayune, obituary, June 29, 1909.

HYMAN, William Bryan, attorney, jurist. Born, Martin County, N. C., April 30, 1814; son of Samuel Hyman and Ann Gray Bryan. Education: University of North Carolina, law degree, 1839. Removed to Alexandria, La., and established law practice. Married, Hermenegildo Gonzales of Rapides Parish. Five children, among whom were Thomas (q.v.) and Gertrude, who married William Mithoff (q.v.). Opposed secession and was in and out of trouble with Confederate authorities during much of the Civil War. In March, 1865, Unionist Governor J. Madison Wells (q.v.), a friend of Hyman's from Alexandria, appointed Hyman chief justice of the state's supreme court, a post he retained until November 1868. Thereafter judge of Jefferson Parish, 1871-1880. Died, New Orleans, August 9, 1884; interred Carrollton Cemetery. J.A.B. Sources: Barnes F. Lathrop, "Disaffection in Confederate Louisiana: The Case of William Hyman," Journal of Southern History, (1958); Manuscript Census Returns, Rapides Parish, 1860; National Cyclopaedia of Americal Biography (1900); New Orleans Daily Picayune, August 10, 1884.

HYNES, Andrew, soldier, planter. Born, Salt River, near Bardstown, Ky., September 20, 1788. Removed to Nashville, Tenn., 1810, where he became active in state militia. In 1814 became adjutant general in the state of Tennessee and later aide-dc-camp to Gen. Andrew Jackson (q.v.) at the Battle of New Orleans. Subsequently visited the Erwin family at Home Place, where he fell in love with Ann Erwin (1796-1837). They were married at Peach Blossom, the Erwin home outside Nashville, Tenn., March 2, 1817. They lived at Home Place, where Joseph Erwin (q.v.) and Andrew Hynes became intimate friends. The children of Andrew and Ann Hynes were Margaret (1819-1841); Lavinia, who married Edward J. Gay (q.v.); Andrew Hynes, Jr. (1823-1827); Ann Hynes (1825-1833); Mary Jane (1827-?); Laura (1830-1833); William A. (1834-?). Although he maintained a home in Nashville on Church Street a half-mile west of the Cumberland River, Andrew Hynes lived with his wife and her parents at Home Place assisting in the management of the plantations. Died, January 21, 1849, and was buried in the rear of the residence area of Home Place, at the side of his father-in-law and friend, Joseph Erwin. R.C.P. Source: Author's research.






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